AUCTION OF ARTWORK BY THE ARTIST FORMERLY KNOWN AS CHARLES BRONSON

WE VISITED THE AUCTION  HOUSE OF J P HUMBERT , SILVERSTONE  TO TAKE SOME IMAGES OF THE UPCOMING AUCTION OF ARTWORK , PERSONAL BELONGINGS DOCUMENTS AND CLOTHING FROM THE ARTIST FORMERLY KNOWN AS CHARLES BRONSON , WHO HAS NOW CHANGED HIS NAME BY DEED-POLE TO CHARLES SALVADOR …. THERE ARE 200 LOTS IN TOTAL (SEE PICS BELOW OF SOME OF THEM ) 

THE AUCTION IS ON THURSDAY 09 OCTOBER AND STARTS AT 5 O’CLOCK 

FOR ANY OTHER INFORMATION, OR TO REGISTER TO BID 

THE AUCTION HOUSE WEBSITE IS FOUND AT 

http://www.jphumbert.com/

GOOD LUCK WITH THE AUCTION TOMORROW  WISHING YOU ALL THE VERY BEST FROM ALL AT THE CRIME THROUGH TIME COLLECTION AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL.

 

CELEBRITY GANGSTER … DAVE COURTNEY TO REVISIT – FOREST OF DEAN , GLOUCESTERSHIRE ON A FORTHCOMING “EVENING WITH EVENT”

WHETHER ONE LOVES HIM OR LOATHES HIM ….. ALWAYS ENTERTAINING AND ON A PERSONAL LEVEL GREAT TO SPEND TIME WITH .

DO VISIT THE CRIME THROUGH TIME COLLECTION AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL AND SEE FOR YOURSELVES AN INTRIGUING INSIGHT INTO THE LIFE OF CELEBRITY GANGSTER ….. DAVE COURTNEY O.B.E


dave_courtney[1]

ABOVE IS A CLASSIC PICTURE OF DAVE COURTNEY WHO IS ALSO CLAIMED TO BE THE INSPIRATION BEHIND VINNIE JONES’S ROLE IN THE ICONIC BRITISH FILM LOCK, STOCK AND TWO SMOKING BARRELS (SEE PICTURE BELOW)

LSTSB

CELEBRITY GANGSTER DAVE COURTNEY VISITS THE CRIME THROUGH TIME COLLECTION AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL IN MAY 2013 ,

BELOW IS A BRIEF GALLERY OF PICTURES OF DAVE COURTNEY’S VISIT TO THE CRIME THROUGH TIME COLLECTION AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL AND THE WOODLANDS PUB IN THE FOREST OF DEAN WITH HIS PARTNER AND HER SON .

CORPORAL PUNISHMENT THROUGH THE AGES THAT SHOULD SURELY BE BROUGHT BACK INTO USE TODAY ?

IF THE GOVERNMENT EVER CONSIDER REINTRODUCING EITHER CORPORAL OR CAPITAL PUNISHMENT , WE WOULD LIKE TO OFFER OUR ESTABLISHMENT HERE AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL AS A CRIME AND PUNISHMENT VENUE …… FOR A FEE OF COURSE !!!

ORIGINAL EARLY 18TH CENTURY HANDMADE OAK  “VILLAGE PUNISHMENT  STOCKS” RESTORED IN THE 19TH CENTURY WITH ADDITIONAL SUPPORTING IRONWORK AND PRESERVED FOR POSTERITY ….. AS CAN NOW BE SEEN AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL,LITTLEDEAN, FOREST OF DEAN, GLOUCESTERSHIRE, UK

VILLAGE STOCKS 

Stocks are devices used in the internationally, in medievalRenaissance and colonial American times as a form of physical punishment involving public humiliation. The stocks partially immobilized its victims and they were often exposed in a public place such as the site of a market to the scorn of those who passed by. Since the purpose of putting offenders in the stocks was to expose them to ridicule and mockery, passers-by were encouraged to throw mud, rotten eggs, moldy fruit and vegetables, smelly fish, offal, and excrement (both animal and human) at those being punished.

VARIOUS EARLY VICTORIAN LEATHER BOUND WHIPS AND CAT O’NINE TAILS USED WITHIN UK PRISONS ….. HERE ON DISPLAY AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL

VARIOUS WHIPS, CAT O’NINE TAILS , BLUDGEON AND LEATHER BOUND HANDCUFFS  USED WITHIN UK PRISONS HERE ON DISPLAY AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL 

VARIOUS EARLY VICTORIAN LEATHER BOUND WHIPS AND CAT O’NINE TAILS USED WITHIN UK PRISONS ….. HERE ON DISPLAY AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL

CLOSE-UP IMAGE OF ROUND HANDLED LEATHER BOUND EARLY VICTORIAN WHIP USED WITHIN UK PRISONS 

AS ABOVE

EARLY VICTORIAN BLACK CLOTH BOUND, ROUND HANDLED CAT O’NINE TAILS USED IN UK PRISONS

AS ABOVE

EARLY VICTORIAN FLAT HANDLED CAT O’NINE TAILS USED IN UK PRISONS

AS ABOVE

CLOSE UP IMAGE OF VICTORIAN LEATHER BOUND HAND RESTRIANTS AS USED HERE AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL 

AS ABOVE

EARLY VICTORIAN LEATHER BOUND BODY RESTRAINT WITH ATTACHED HAND CUFFS USED IN UK PRISONS AND NOW ON DISPLAY AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL

CLOSE UP OF ABOVE

CLOSE UP OF ABOVE

AS ABOVE

AS ABOVE

AS ABOVE

AS ABOVE

AS ABOVE

PRISON WARDEN INSCRIBED 18TH CENTURY TRUNCHEON AND EARLY VICTORIAN BODY RESTRAINT BELT HERE ON DISPLAY

INSCRIBED GEORGE 1ST PRISON WARDEN TRUNCHEON HERE ON DISPLAY AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL

EARLY VICTORIAN BLUDGEON USED IN UK PRISONS …. HERE ON DISPLAY AT THE JAIL WITH PRISON WARDEN TRUNCHEON AND HIATT STEEL HANDCUFFS 

EARLY VICTORIAN BLUDGEON  USED IN UK PRISONS

CLOSE-UP OF HIATT STEEL HANDCUFFS

Corporal punishment is a form of physical punishment that involves the deliberate infliction of pain as retribution for an offence, or for the purpose of disciplining or reforming a wrongdoer, or to deter attitudes or behaviour deemed unacceptable. The term usually refers to methodically striking the offender with an implement, whether in judicial, domestic, or educational settings.

Corporal punishment may be divided into three main types:

Corporal punishment of minors within domestic settings is lawful in all 50 of the United States and, according to a 2000 survey, is widely approved by parents.[1]It has been officially outlawed in 29 countries.[2]

Corporal punishment in school is still legal in some parts of the world, including 20 of the States of the USA, but has been outlawed in other places, including Canada, Kenya, Japan, South Africa, New Zealand, and nearly all of Europe except the Czech Republic[3] and France.[4]

Judicial corporal punishment has virtually disappeared from the western world but remains in force in many parts of Africa and Asia.

Contents

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History of corporal punishment

The practice was recorded as early as c. 10th Century BC in Book of Proverbs attributed to Solomon:

He that spareth the rod hateth his son: but he that loveth him correcteth him betimes.[5]
Withhold not correction from a child: for if thou strike him with the rod, he shall not die. Thou shalt beat him with the rod, and deliver his soul from hell.[6]

It was certainly present in classical civilisations, being used in GreeceRome, and Egypt for both judicial and educational discipline.[7] Some states gained a reputation for using such punishments cruelly; Sparta, in particular, used them as part of a disciplinary regime designed to build willpower and physical strength.[8] Although the Spartan example was extreme, corporal punishment was possibly the most frequent type of punishment. In the Roman Empire, the maximum penalty that a Roman citizen could receive under the law was 40 “lashes” or “strokes” with a whip applied to the back and shoulders, or with the “fasces” (similar to a birch rod, but consisting of 8–10 lengths of willow rather than birch) applied to the buttocks. Such punishments could draw blood, and were frequently inflicted in public.

In Medieval Europe, corporal punishment was encouraged by the attitudes of the medieval church towards the human body, flagellation being a common means of self-discipline. This had an influence on the use of corporal punishment in schools, as educational establishments were closely attached to the church during this period. Nevertheless, corporal punishment was not used uncritically; as early as the eleventh century Saint AnselmArchbishop of Canterbury was speaking out against what he saw as the excessive use of corporal punishment in the treatment of children.[9]

From the 16th century onwards, new trends were seen in corporal punishment. Judicial punishments were increasingly turned into public spectacles, with public beatings of criminals intended as a deterrent to other would-be offenders. Meanwhile, early writers on education, such as Roger Ascham, complained of the arbitrary manner in which children were punished.[10] Perhaps the most influential writer on the subject was the English philosopher John Locke, whose Some Thoughts Concerning Education explicitly criticised the central role of corporal punishment in education. Locke’s work was highly influential, and may have helped influence Polish legislators to ban corporal punishment from Poland’s schools in 1783.[11]

During the 18th century, the concept of corporal punishment was attacked by some philosophers and legal reformers. Merely inflicting pain on miscreants was seen as inefficient, influencing the subject only for a short period of time and effecting no permanent change in their behaviour. Some believed that the purpose of punishment should be reformation, not retribution. This is perhaps best expressed in Jeremy Bentham’s idea of a panoptic prison, in which prisoners were controlled and surveyed at all times, perceived to be advantageous in that this system supposedly reduced the need of measures such as corporal punishment.[12]

A consequence of this mode of thinking was a reduction in the use of corporal punishment in the 19th century in Europe and North America. In some countries this was encouraged by scandals involving individuals seriously hurt during acts of corporal punishment. For instance, in Britain, popular opposition to punishment was encouraged by two significant cases, the death of Private Frederick John White, who died after a military flogging in 1846,[13] and the death of Reginald Cancellor, who was killed by his schoolmaster in 1860.[14] Events such as these mobilised public opinion, and in response, many countries introduced thorough regulation of the infliction of corporal punishment in state institutions such as schools, prisons and reformatories.

In the 1870s, courts in the United States overruled the common-law principle that a husband had the right to “physically chastise an errant wife”.[15] In the UK the traditional right of a husband to inflict moderate corporal punishment on his wife in order to keep her “within the bounds of duty” was similarly removed in 1891.[16][17] See Domestic violence for more information.

In the United Kingdom, the use of judicial corporal punishment declined during the first half of the 20th century and it was abolished altogether in 1948, while most other European countries had abolished it earlier. Meanwhile in many schools, the use of the cane, paddle or tawse remained commonplace in the UK and the United States until the 1980s. In several other countries, it still is: seeSchool corporal punishment.

Modern use

Corporal punishment in the home

Domestic corporal punishment, i.e. of children and teenagers by their parents, is usually referred to colloquially as “spanking“, “whipping“, “smacking,” or “slapping.” One possible method of spanking is to have the child or teenager lying, stomach down, across the parent’s lap, with the parent bringing their open hand down upon the child’s buttocks. Alternatively, the youngster might be told to bend over, or lie face down across a bed.[18] Spankings may be delivered over the trousers, over the undergarments, or upon the bare buttocks.[19]

In an increasing number of countries it has been outlawed, starting with Sweden in 1979.[2] In some other countries, corporal punishment is legal, but restricted (e.g. blows to the head are outlawed and implements may not be used, and/or only children within a certain age range may be spanked).

In the United States and all African and most Asian nations, “spanking,” “whipping,” “smacking,” or “slapping” by parents is currently legal; it is also legal to use certain implements such as a belt or paddle.

In Canada, spanking by parents or legal guardians (but nobody else) is legal, as long as the child is not under 2 years or over 12 years of age, and no implement other than an open, bare hand is used (belts, paddles, etc. are strictly prohibited). Provinces can legally impose tighter restrictions than the aforementioned national restrictions, but none currently does so.

In the UK, spanking or smacking is legal, but it may not leave a mark on the body and in Scotland since October 2003 it has been illegal to use any implements when disciplining a child.

In Pakistan, Section 89 of Pakistan Penal Code allows corporal punishment. The Government of Pakistan has yet to repeal this law.[20]

Corporal punishment in schools

Legal corporal punishment of school students for misbehaviour involves striking the student on the buttocks or the palm of the hand in a premeditated ceremony with an implement specially kept for the purpose such as a rattan cane or spanking paddle, or with the open hand.

Judicial or quasi-judicial punishment

  Countries with judicial corporal punishment

Some countries retain judicial corporal punishment, including a number of former British territories such as Botswana, Malaysia, Singapore and Tanzania. In Malaysia and Singapore, for certain specified offences, males are routinely sentenced to caning in addition to a prison term. The Singaporean practice of caning became much discussed around the world in 1994 when American teenager Michael P. Fay was caned for vandalism.

A number of countries with an Islamic legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Sudan and northern Nigeria, employ judicial whipping for a range of offences. As of 2009, some regions of Pakistan are experiencing a breakdown of law and government, leading to a reintroduction of corporal punishment by ad hocIslamicist courts.[21] As well as corporal punishment, some Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran use other kinds of physical penalties such asamputation or mutilation.[22][23][24] However, the term “corporal punishment” has since the 19th century usually meant caning, flogging or whipping rather than those other types of physical penalty.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Pros and cons of corporal punishment

According to its proponents, corporal punishment offers several advantages over other kinds of punishment, such as that it is quicker to implement, costs nothing, and deters unruliness.[32][33]

The American Psychological Association opposes the use of corporal punishment in schools, juvenile facilities, child care nurseries, and all other institutions, public or private, where children are cared for or educated. It claims that corporal punishment is violent and unnecessary, may lower self-esteem, and is liable to instil hostility and rage without reducing the undesired behaviour. The APA also states that corporal punishment is likely to train children to use physical violence.[34]

The professor of philosophy, David Benatar, points out that using this last argument, fining people also teaches that forcing others to give up some of their property is an acceptable response to unwanted behaviour in others. “Why don’t detentions, imprisonments, fines, and a multitude of other punishments convey equally undesirable messages?” According to Benatar, the key difference lies in the legitimacy of the authority administering the punishment: “[T]here is all the difference in the world between legitimate authorities—the judiciary, parents, or teachers—using punitive powers responsibly to punish wrongdoing, and children or private citizens going around beating each other, locking each other up, and extracting financial tributes (such as lunch money). There is a vast moral difference here and there is no reason why children should not learn about it. Punishing children when they do wrong seems to be one important way of doing this.”[35]

Kay Hymowitz in her book, Who Killed Discipline in School? states, “Ask Americans what worries them most about public schools and the answer might surprise you; discipline. For several decades now, poll after poll shows it topping the list of parents’ concerns. Hymowitz says that, “the public’s sense that something has gone drastically wrong with school discipline isn’t mistaken. Over the past thirty years or so, the courts and federal government have hacked away at the power of educators to maintain a safe and civil school environment.”[36]

Anatomical target

Different parts of the anatomy may be targeted:

  • The buttocks, whether clothed or bare, have often been targeted for punishment, particularly in Europe and the English-speaking world.[28] Indeed, some languages have a specific word for their chastisement: spanking in English, fessée in French, nalgada in Spanish (both Romanesque words directly derived from the word for buttock). The advantage is that these fleshy body parts are robust and can be chastised accurately, without endangering any bodily functions; they heal well and relatively quickly; in some cultures punishment applied to the buttocks entails a degree of humiliation, which may or may not be intended as part of the punishment.
  • Chastising the back of the thighs and calves, as sometimes in South Korean schools, is at least as painful if not more so, but this can cause more damage in terms of scars and bruising.
  • The upper back and the shoulders have historically been a target for whipping, e.g. in the UK with the cat-o’-nine-tails in the Royal Navy and in some pre-1948 judicial punishments, and also today generally in the Middle East and the Islamic world.
  • The head is a very dangerous place to hit, especially “boxing the ears“.
  • The hand is very sensitive and delicate, and use of an implement could cause excessive damage.[37]
  • The soles of the feet are extremely sensitive, and flogging them (falaka), as has been sometimes done in the Middle East, is excruciating.

Ritual and punishment

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed(July 2007)

Corporal punishment in official settings, such as schools and prisons, has typically been carried out as a formal ceremony, with a standard procedure, emphasising the solemnity of the occasion. It may even be staged in a ritual manner in front of other students/inmates, in order to act as a deterrent to others.

In the case of prison or judicial punishments, formal punishment might begin with the offender stripped of some or all of their clothing and secured to a piece of furniture, such as a trestle or frame,[38][39](X-cross), punishment horse or falaka. In some cases the nature of the offence is read out and the sentence (consisting of a predetermined number of strokes) is formally imposed. A variety of implements may be used to inflict blows on the offender. The terms used to describe these are not fixed, varying by country and by context. There are, however, a number of common types that are encountered when reading about corporal punishment. These include:

  • The rod. A thin, flexible rod is often called a switch.
  • The birch, a number of strong, flexible branches of birch or similar wood, bound together with twine into a single implement.
  • The rattan cane (not bamboo as it is often wrongly described). Much favoured in the British Commonwealth for both school and judicial use.
  • The paddle, a flat wooden board with a handle, with or without holes. Used in US schools.
  • The strap. A leather strap with a number of tails at one end, called a tawse, was used in schools in Scotland and some parts of northern England.
  • The whip, typically of leather. Varieties include the Russian knout and South African sjambok, in addition to the scourge and the French martinet.
  • The cat o’ nine tails was used in British naval discipline and as a judicial and prison punishment.
  • The hairbrush and belt were traditionally used in the United States and Britain as an implement for domestic spanking.
  • The plimsoll or gym shoe, used in British and Commonwealth schools, often called “the slipper”. See Slippering (punishment).
  • The ferula, in Jesuit schools, as vividly described in a scene in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

In some instances the offender is required to prepare the implement himself. For instance, sailors were employed in preparing the cat o’ nine tails that would be used upon their own back, while school students were sometimes sent out to cut a switch or rod.

In contrast, informal punishments, particularly in domestic settings, tend to lack this ritual nature and are often administered with whatever object comes to hand. It is common, for instance, for belts, wooden spoons, slippers, hairbrushes or coathangers to be used in domestic punishment, while rulers and other classroom equipment have been used in schools.

In parts of England, boys were once beaten under the old tradition of “Beating the Bounds” whereby a boy was paraded around the edge of a city or parish and would be spanked with a switch or cane to mark the boundary.[40] One famous “Beating the Bounds” took place around the boundary of St Giles and the area where Tottenham Court Road now stands in central London. The actual stone that separated the boundary is now underneath the Centre Point office tower.[41]

Corporal punishment, paraphilia and fetishism

The German psychologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing suggested that a tendency to sadism and masochism may develop out of the experience of children receiving corporal punishment at school.[42] But this was disputed by Sigmund Freud, who found that, where there was a sexual interest in beating or being beaten, it developed in early childhood, and rarely related to actual experiences of punishment.[43]

Capital punishment in the United Kingdom was used from the creation of the state in 1707 until the practice was abolished in the twentieth century. The last executions in the United Kingdom, by hanging, took place in 1964, prior to capital punishment being abolished for murder (in 1969 in Great Britain and in 1973 in Northern Ireland). Although not applied since, the death penalty remained on the statute book for certain other offences until 1998.[1]

Sir Samuel Romilly, speaking to the House of Commons on capital punishment in 1810, declared that “…(there is) no country on the face of the earth in which there [have] been so many different offences according to law to be punished with death as in England.”[citation needed] Known as the “Bloody Code“, at its height the criminal law included some 220 crimes punishable by death, including “being in the company of Gypsies for one month”, “strong evidence of malice in a child aged 7–14 years of age” and “blacking the face or using a disguise whilst committing a crime”. Many of these offences had been introduced to protect the property of the wealthy classes that emerged during the first half of the 18th century, a notable example being the Black Act of 1723, which created 50 capital offences for various acts of theft and poaching.Background

Whilst executions for murderburglary and robbery were common, the death sentences for minor offenders were often not carried out. However, children were commonly executed for such minor crimes as stealing. A sentence of death could be commuted or respited (permanently postponed) for reasons such as benefit of clergy, official pardons, pregnancy of the offender or performance of military or naval duty.[2] Between 1770 and 1830, 35,000 death sentences were handed down in England and Wales, but only 7,000 executions were carried out.[3]

There were prisons, but they were mostly small, old and badly-run. Common punishments included transportation — sending the offender to America, Australia or Van Diemens Land (Tasmania), or execution — hundreds of offences carried the death penalty. By the 1830s people were having doubts about both these punishments. The answer was prison: lots of new prisons were built and old ones extended. The Victorians also had clear ideas about what these prisons should be like. They should be unpleasant places, so as to deter people from committing crimes. Once inside, prisoners had to be made to face up to their own faults, by keeping them in silence and making them do hard, boring work. Walking a treadwheel or picking oakum (separating strands of rope) were the most common forms of hard labour.

Reform

In 1808 Romilly had the death penalty removed for pickpockets and lesser offenders, starting a process of reform that continued over the next 50 years. The death penalty was mandatory (although it was frequently commuted by the government) until the Judgement of Death Act 1823 gave judges the power to commute the death penalty except for treason and murder. The Punishment of Death, etc. Act 1832 reduced the number of capital crimes by two-thirds. Gibbeting was abolished in 1832 and hanging in chains was abolished in 1834. In 1861, several acts of Parliament (24 & 25 Vict; c. 94 to c. 100) further reduced the number of civilian capital crimes to five: murdertreasonespionagearson in royal dockyards, and piracy with violence; there were other offences under military law. The death penalty remained mandatory for treason and murder unless commuted.

The Royal Commission on Capital Punishment 1864-1866 [4] concluded (with dissenting Commissioners) that there was not a case for abolition but recommended an end to public executions. This proposal was included in the Capital Punishment Amendment Act 1868. From then executions in Great Britain were carried out in prison. The practice of beheading and quartering executed traitors stopped in 1870.[5]

Juveniles under 16 could no longer be executed from 1908 under the Children Act 1908. In 1922 a new offence of Infanticide was introduced to replace the charge of murder for mothers killing their children in the first year of life. In 1930 a parliamentary Select Committee recommended that capital punishment be suspended for a trial period of five years, but no action was taken. From 1931 pregnant women could no longer be hanged (following the birth of their child) although in practice since the 18th century their sentences had always been commuted, and in 1933 the minimum age for capital punishment was raised to 18 under the Children and Young Persons Act 1933. The last known execution by the civilian courts of a person under 18 was that of Charles Dobel, 17, hanged atMaidstone together with his accomplice William Gower, 18, in January 1889.

In 1938 the issue of the abolition of capital punishment was brought before parliament. A clause within the Criminal Justice Bill called for an experimental five-year suspension of the death penalty. When war broke out in 1939 the bill was postponed. It was revived after the war and to everyone’s surprise was adopted by a majority in the House of Commons (245 to 222). In the House of Lords the abolition clause was defeated but the remainder of the bill was passed. Popular support for abolition was absent and the government decided that it would be inappropriate for it to assert its supremacy by invoking the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 over such an unpopular issue.

Instead, then Home SecretaryJames Chuter Ede, set up a new Royal Commission (the Royal Commission on Capital Punishment, 1949–1953) with instructions to determine “whether the liability to suffer capital punishment should be limited or modified”. The Commission’s report discussed a number of alternatives to execution by hanging (including the US methods of electrocution and gassing, and the then-theoretical lethal injection), but rejected them. It had more difficulty with the principle of capital punishment. Popular opinion believed that the death penalty acted as a deterrent to criminals, but the statistics within the report were inconclusive. Whilst the report recommended abolition from an ethical standpoint, it made no mention of possible miscarriages of justice. The public had by then expressed great dissatisfaction with the verdict in the case of Timothy Evans, who was tried and hanged for murdering his baby daughter in 1949. It later transpired in 1953 that John Christie had strangled at least six women in the same house; if the jury in Evans’s trial had known this, Evans would probably not have been found guilty. There were other cases in the same period where doubts arose over convictions and subsequent hangings, such as the notorious case of Derek Bentley.

The Commission concluded that unless there was overwhelming public support in favour of abolition, the death penalty should be retained.

Between 1900 and 1949, 621 men and 11 women were executed in England and Wales. Ten German agents were executed during the First World War under the Defence of the Realm Act 1914,[6] and 16 spies were executed during the Second World War under the Treachery Act 1940.[7]

By 1957 a number of controversial cases highlighted the issue of capital punishment again. Campaigners for abolition were partially rewarded with the Homicide Act 1957. The Act brought in a distinction between capital and non-capital homicide. Only six categories of murder were now punishable by execution:

  • in the course or furtherance of theft
  • by shooting or causing an explosion
  • while resisting arrest or during an escape
  • of a police officer
  • of a prison officer by a prisoner
  • the second of two murders committed on different occasions (if both done in Great Britain).

The police and the government were of the opinion that the death penalty deterred offenders from carrying firearms and it was for this reason that such offences remained punishable by death.

Abolition

The only known photograph of the death sentence being pronounced in England and Wales, for the poisoner Frederick Seddon in 1912[8]

Murder

In 1965 the Labour MP Sydney Silverman, who had committed himself to the cause of abolition for more than 20 years, introduced a private member’s bill to suspend the death penalty, which was passed on a free vote in the House of Commons by 200 votes to 98. The bill was subsequently passed by the House of Lords by 204 votes to 104.

The Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965 suspended the death penalty in England, Wales and Scotland (but not in Northern Ireland) for murder for a period of five years, and substituted a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment; it further provided that if, before the expiry of the five-year suspension, each House of Parliament passed a resolution to make the effect of the Act permanent, then it would become permanent. In 1969 the Home SecretaryJames Callaghan, proposed a motion to make the Act permanent, which was carried in the Commons on 16 December 1969,[9] and a similar motion was carried in the Lords on 18 December.[10] The death penalty for murder was abolished in Northern Ireland on 25 July 1973 under the Northern Ireland (Emergency Provisions) Act 1973.

Following the abolition of the death penalty for murder, the House of Commons held a vote during each subsequent parliament until 1997 to restore the death penalty. This motion was always defeated, but the death penalty still survived for other crimes:

  1. causing a fire or explosion in a naval dockyard, ship, magazine or warehouse (until 1971);
  2. espionage[11] (until 1981);
  3. piracy with violence (until 1998);
  4. treason (until 1998); and
  5. certain purely military offences under the jurisdiction of the armed forces, such as mutiny[12] (until 1998). Prior to its complete abolition in 1998, it was available for six offences:
    1. serious misconduct in action;
    2. assisting the enemy;
    3. obstructing operations;
    4. giving false air signals;
    5. mutiny or incitement to mutiny; and
    6. failure to suppress a mutiny with intent to assist the enemy.

However no executions were carried out in the United Kingdom for any of these offences, after the abolition of the death penalty for murder.

Nevertheless, there remained a working gallows at HMP Wandsworth, London, until 1994, which was tested every six months until 1992. This gallows is now housed in the Galleries of Justice inNottingham.[13]

Last executions

England and in the United Kingdom: on 13 August 1964, Peter Anthony Allen, at Walton Prison in Liverpool, and Gwynne Owen Evans, at Strangeways Prison in Manchester, were executed for the murder of John Alan West on 7 April that year.[14]

Scotland: Henry John Burnett, 21, on 15 August 1963 in Craiginches PrisonAberdeen, for the murder of seaman Thomas Guyan.

Northern Ireland: Robert McGladdery, 25, on 20 December 1961 in Crumlin Road Gaol, Belfast, for the murder of Pearl Gamble.

Wales: Vivian Teed, 24, in Swansea on 6 May 1958, for the murder of William Williams, sub-postmaster of Fforestfach Post Office.[15]

Last death sentences

Northern Ireland and in the United Kingdom: William Holden in 1973 in Northern Ireland, for the capital murder of a British soldier during the Troubles. Holden was removed from the death cell in May 1973.[16]

England: David Chapman, who was sentenced to hang in November 1965 for the murder of a swimming pool nightwatchman in Scarborough. He was released from prison in 1979 and later died in a car accident.

Scotland: Patrick McCarron in 1964 for shooting his wife. He hanged himself in prison in 1970.

Wales: Edgar Black, who was reprieved on 6 November 1963. He had shot his wife’s lover in Cardiff.

Final abolition

The Criminal Damage Act 1971 abolished the offence of arson in royal dockyards.

The Naval Discipline Act 1957 reduced the scope of capital espionage from “all spies for the enemy” to spies on naval ships or bases.[17] Later, the Armed Forces Act 1981 abolished the death penalty for espionage.[18] (The Official Secrets Act 1911 had created another offence of espionage which carried a maximum sentence of fourteen years.)

Beheading was abolished as a method of execution for treason in 1973.[19] However hanging remained available until 1998 when, under a House of Lords amendment to the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, proposed by Lord Archer of Sandwell, the death penalty was abolished for treason and piracy with violence, replacing it with a discretionary maximum sentence of life imprisonment. These were the last civilian offences punishable by death.

On 20 May 1998 the House of Commons voted to ratify the 6th Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibiting capital punishment except “in time of war or imminent threat of war.” The last remaining provisions for the death penalty under military jurisdiction (including in wartime) were removed when section 21(5) of the Human Rights Act 1998 came into force on 9 November 1998. On 10 October 2003, effective from 1 February 2004,[20] the UK acceded to the 13th Protocol, which prohibits the death penalty under all circumstances,[21] so that the UK may no longer legislate to restore the death penalty while it is subject to the Convention. It can only now restore it if it withdraws from the Council of Europe.

As a legacy from colonial times, several islands in the West Indies still had the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as the court of final appeal; although the death penalty has been retained in these islands, the Privy Council would sometimes delay or deny executions. Some of these islands severed links with the British court system in 2001 in order to speed up executions.[22]

Crown dependencies

Although not part of the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey are British Crown dependencies.

In the Channel Islands, the last death sentence was passed in 1984; the last execution in the Channel Islands was in Jersey on 9 October 1959, when Francis Joseph Huchet was hanged for murder.[23] The Human Rights (Amendment) (Jersey) Order 2006[24] amends the Human Rights (Jersey) Law 2000[25] to give effect to the 13th Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rightsproviding for the total abolition of the death penalty. Both of these laws came into effect on 10 December 2006. The 13th Protocol was extended to Guernsey in April 2004.[26]

The last execution on the Isle of Man took place in 1872, when John Kewish was hanged for patricide. Capital punishment was not formally abolished by Tynwald (the island’s parliament) until 1993.[27]Five persons were sentenced to death (for murder) on the Isle of Man between 1973 and 1992, although all sentences were commuted to life imprisonment. The last person to be sentenced to death in the UK or its dependencies was Anthony Teare, who was convicted at the Manx Court of General Gaol Delivery in Douglas in 1992; he was subsequently retried and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1994.[28] In 2004 the 13th Protocol was adopted,[29] with an effective date of 1 November 2006.[30]

Overseas territories

Like the Crown dependencies, the British overseas territories are constitutionally not part of the United Kingdom. However, the British government’s ultimate responsibility for good governance of the territories has led it over recent years to pursue a policy of revoking all statutory provision for the death penalty in those territories where it had up until recently been legal.

The last executions in an overseas territory, and indeed the last on British soil, took place in Bermuda in 1977, when two men, Larry Tacklyn and Erskine Burrows, were hanged for the 1973 murder of the then territory’s Governor Sir Richard Sharples.[31]

In 1991, the British government extended an Order in Council to its Caribbean territories whose effect was to abolish capital punishment for murder: Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman IslandsMontserrat and the Turks and Caicos Islands.[32]

The British government was unable to extend the abolition via Order in Council to Bermuda, the UK’s most autonomous overseas territory with powers of almost total self-governance — but warned that if voluntary abolition was not forthcoming it would be forced to consider the unprecedented step of ‘whether to impose abolition by means of an Act of Parliament’.[33] As a result the Bermudian government introduced its own domestic legislation in 1999 to rectify the problem.[34]

Further measures have subsequently been adopted to revoke technicalities in British overseas territories’ domestic legislation as regards use of the death penalty for crimes of treason and piracy. Since 2002, the death penalty has been outlawed under all circumstances in all the UK’s overseas territories.[35]

Public support for reintroduction of capital punishment

A November 2009 television survey showed that 70% favoured reinstating the death penalty for at least one of the following crimes: armed robbery, rape, crimes related to paedophilia, terrorism, adult murder, child murder, child rape, treason, child abuse, or kidnapping. However, respondents only favoured capital punishment for adult murder, the polling question asked by other organisations such asGallup, by small majorities or pluralities: overall, 51% favoured the death penalty for adult murder, while 56% in Wales did, 55% in Scotland, and only 49% in England.[36]

In August 2011, the Internet blogger Paul Staines – who writes a political blog as Guido Fawkes and heads the Restore Justice Camptign – launched an e-petition on the Downing Street website calling for the restoration of the death penalty for those convicted of the murder of children and police officers.[37] The petition was one of several in support or opposition of capital punishment to be published by the government with the launch of its e-petitions website. As of August 12, an e-petition calling to retain the ban on capital punishment has received 20,000 votes[38], 17000 more than the e-petition calling for the reinstatement of the death penalty.[39] Petitions attracting 100,000 signatures would prompt a parliamentary debate on a particular topic, but not necessarily lead to any Parliamentary Bills being put forward.[40]

Also in August 2011, a representative survey conducted by Angus Reid Public Opinion showed that 65 per cent of Britons support reinstating the death penalty for murder in Great Britain, while 28 per cent oppose this course of action. Men, respondents aged 35-to-54 and those over the age of 55 are more likely to endorse the change.[41]

Notable executions in the United Kingdom

Note: This list does not include the beheadings of nobility.

  • 1724, 16 November: Jack Sheppardhousebreaker, was hanged at Tyburn for burglary after four successful escape attempts from jail. His partner-in-crime, highwayman Joseph “Blueskin” Blake, was executed for the same burglary five days earlier.
  • 1725, 24 May: Jonathan Wild, criminal overlord and fraudulent “Thief Taker General”, was hanged at Tyburn (over six months after Jack Sheppard’s and Blueskin’s executions) for receiving stolen goods and thus aiding criminals.
  • 1739: Dick Turpin, highwayman, was hanged.
  • 1746, 30 July: nine Catholic members of the Manchester Regiment, Jacobites, were hanged, drawn and quartered for treason at Kennington Common (now Kennington Park).
  • 1750: James MacLaine, ‘The Gentleman Highwayman’, was hanged at Tyburn, London
  • 1757: John Byng became the only British admiral executed, by firing squad by the Royal Navy. His crime was to have failed to “do his utmost” at the Battle of Minorca during the Seven Years War.
  • 1760, 5 May: Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers was executed at Tyburn for the murder of a servant. He is the only peer to have been hanged for murder.
  • 1789: Catherine Murphy was the last woman to be burned to death (legally) in England. The penalty was abolished the next year.
  • 1812, 18 May: John Bellingham was hanged for the murder of Prime Minister Spencer Perceval.
  • 1820: Andrew Hardie and John Baird were hanged and beheaded at Stirling after being tried for their part in the Radical War in Scotland.
  • 1828, 11 August: William Corder was hanged at Bury St Edmunds for the murder of Maria Marten at the Red Barn a year before.
  • 1856, 9 August: Martha Brown was the last woman to be hanged in public, in Dorset.
  • 1861, 27 August: Martin Doyle was the last person to be hanged for attempted murder, at Chester.
  • 1868, 2 April: Frances Kidder was the last woman to be hanged in public.
  • 1868, 26 May: Michael Barrett was executed at Newgate Prison for the Fenian bombing at Clerkenwell, the last public hanging in the UK.
  • 1899, 19 July: Mary Ansell was hanged at St Albans, for poisoning her sister. At 22 she was the youngest woman to be hanged in the post-1868 ‘modern era’ (non-public, and by the ‘long drop’ method).
  • 1910, 23 November: Hawley Harvey Crippen was hanged in London’s Pentonville Prison for the murder of his wife.
  • 1914, 8 September: Private Thomas Highgate was executed by firing squad, the first British soldier to be executed for desertion during World War I.
  • 1915, 13 August: George Joseph Smith was hanged in Maidstone Prison for the pattern of serial killings known as the “Brides in the Bath Murders”.
  • 1916, 3 August: Roger Casement was hanged at Pentonville for treason as one of the seven leaders of the failed Irish Easter Rising.
  • 1920, 2 November: Private James Daly of the Connaught Rangers was shot for mutiny in India, the last member of the British Armed Forces to be executed for mutiny.
  • 1923, 9 January: Edith Thompson and Frederick Bywaters, in London’s Holloway and Pentonville Prisons respectively. The case was controversial because Thompson did not directly participate in the murder for which she was hanged.
  • 1931, 3 January: Victor Betts for murder committed during the course of a robbery. The case had established that a person need not be present when a crime is committed to be regarded as an accessory after the fact.[42]
  • 1941, 15 August: Josef Jakobs was executed by firing squad, the last execution in the Tower of London.
  • 1946, 3 January: William Joyce, better known as “Lord Haw-Haw“, for treason in London’s Wandsworth Prison. He was an American citizen, but was convicted of treason because, as the holder of aBritish passport (albeit fraudulently obtained), he was held to have owed allegiance to the British sovereign. Theodore Schurch, hanged for treachery the next day, was the last person to be executed for an offence other than murder; he was executed at Pentonville. As a member of the armed forces he had been tried by court-martial.
  • 1947, 27 February: Walter Rowland in Manchester for the murder of Olive Balchin despite maintaining his innocence. While he had been awaiting execution, another man confessed to the crime.[citation needed] A Home Office report dismissed the latter’s confession as a fake, but in 1951 he attacked another woman and was found guilty but insane.[citation needed]
  • 1949, 12 January: Margaret Allen, aged 43, for killing a 70-year-old woman in the course of a robbery, the first woman to be hanged in Britain for 12 years.
  • 1949, 10 August: John George Haigh, the “acid-bath murderer”, at Wandsworth.
  • 1950, 9 March: Timothy Evans at Pentonville for the murder of his baby daughter Geraldine at 10 Rillington Place, North West London. He initially claimed to have killed his wife, but later withdrew the claim. A fellow inhabitant at the same address, John Christie, later found to be a sexual serial killer, gave key evidence against Evans. Christie was executed in 1953 for the murder of his own wife. Evans received a posthumous pardon in 1966. In 2004 the Court of Appeal refused to consider overturning the conviction due to the costs and resources that would be involved. See John Christie (murderer).
  • 1950, 28 March: George Kelly at Liverpool for murder, but had his conviction quashed posthumously by the Court of Appeal in June 2003.
  • 1952, 25 April: Edward Devlin and Alfred Burns, for killing a woman during a robbery in Liverpool. They claimed that they had been doing a different burglary in Manchester, and others involved in the crime supported this. A Home Office report rejected this evidence. Huge crowds gathered outside Liverpool’s Walton Prison as they were executed.
  • 1952, 3 September: Mahmood Hussein Mattan, a Somali seaman, in Cardiff for murder. The Court of Appeal quashed his conviction posthumously in 1998[43] after hearing that crucial evidence implicating another Somali was withheld at his trial.
  • 1953, 28 January: Derek Bentley at Wandsworth Prison as an accomplice to the murder of a police officer by his 16-year-old friend Christopher Craig. Craig, a minor, was not executed and instead served 10 years. Bentley was granted a posthumous pardon on 29 July 1993, and the Court of Appeal overturned his conviction on 30 July 1998.
  • 1953, 15 July: John Reginald Halliday Christie at Pentonville for the murder of his wife Ethel. Christie was a serial killer and had murdered at least six other women.
  • 1954, 13 December: Styllou Christofi, aged 53, penultimate woman executed in Britain.
  • 1955, 12 July: Ruth Ellis, aged 28, the last woman to be hanged in Britain. She was the 15th and youngest woman hanged in the 20th century. (See also Mary Ansell, above).
  • 1958, 6 May: Vivian Teed, 24, in Swansea, the last person to be executed in Wales.
  • 1958, 11 July: Peter Manuel, aged 31, second to last person to be hanged in HM Prison Barlinnie and the third to last to be hanged in Scotland.
  • 1959, 9 October: Francis Joseph Huchet, 31, in St HelierJersey, the last person to be executed in the Channel Islands.
  • 1959, 5 November: Guenther Podola, the last person to be hanged for the murder of a policeman.
  • 1960, 10 November: Francis Forsyth, the last 18-year-old to be executed in Britain;
  • 1960, 22 December: Anthony Miller, 19, in Glasgow‘s Barlinnie Prison, the last teenager to be executed in Britain.
  • 1961, 20 December: Robert McGladdery, 25, in Crumlin Road Gaol in Belfast, the last person to be executed in Northern Ireland, for the murder of Pearl Gamble in Newry.
  • 1962, 4 April: James Hanratty at Bedford after a controversial rape-murder trial. In 2002 Hanratty’s body was exhumed and the Court of Appeal upheld his conviction after Hanratty’s DNA was linked to crime scene samples.
  • 1963, 15 August: Henry Burnett, aged 21, at Craiginches Prison in Aberdeen for the murder of seaman Thomas Guyan, the last hanging in Scotland.
  • 1964, 13 August: Peter Anthony Allen, at Walton Prison in Liverpool, and Gwynne Owen Evans, at Strangeways Prison in Manchester for the murder of John Alan West, the last people executed in Britain.[14]

NOW ICONIC BRITISH ACTOR AND STAR OF BRONSON FILM -TOM HARDY CONTINUES TO SUPPORT CHARLIE BRONSON (NOW CHARLES SALVADOR) .

HERE ARE SOME OF THE BEST CLIPS FROM THE CONTROVERSIAL BRONSON FILM  ALONG WITH IMAGES AND A BACKGROUND ON BRITAIN’S MOST INFAMOUS AND NOTORIOUS PRISON INMATE

A GREAT BRITISH ACTOR TOM HARDY AS BRONSON IN THE FILM

TOM HARDY WITH HAIR !!! ALONGSIDE A FILM POSTER DEPICTING HIMSELF AS BRONSON

THE REAL CHARLES BRONSON – STILL DEEMED TO BE BRITAIN’S MOST INFAMOUS AND NOTORIOUS  PRISON INMATE

CHARLES BRONSON WITH BEARD

THE REAL CHARLES BRONSON BEING LED AWAY FROM COURT ..

 AS REPORTED IN THE DAILY MIRROR NOVEMBER 2010

Naked Charles Bronson covered himself in butter in latest jail rage

 15/11/2010

Crackpot Charles Bronson covered himself in butter while naked and took on 12 prison warders in his latest jail rage.

The 57-year-old flipped after growing more and more furious over his latest failed bid to be freed.

He took on six warders, then another six in a specialist restraint team who rushed to help before finally being dragged back to solitary.

At least four officers were injured in the rampage on the notorious F-wing at Wakefield jail, West Yorks.

An insider said: “He was naked and covered himself in butter so staff trying to restrain him could not take him down. He assaulted four before they sent in six members of the control and restraint team to get him.

“They finally managed to control him and he was taken back into solitary confinement.

“Charlie has not been in the news for a while and his failed appeal last year hit him hard. He was moved to Long Lartin and thought he was going to get out.

“Then they had to take him back to the highest security at Wakefield.

“He knows this is it for the rest of his days, and he is desperate.”

Lifer Bronson, first jailed for armed robbery in 1969, is likely to be in solitary indefinitely. He has spent the vast majority of his 36 years behind bars alone.

Bronson was last locked up in 1974 for another armed raid. He has taken a string of hostages in 10 sieges, attacked at least 20 officers and caused £500,000 damage in rooftop protests.

He got life for kidnapping prison teacher Phil Danielson at Hull jail in 1999.

His appeal against that sentence failed last year. A film, Bronson, has been released based on his life.

His art work, including dark depictions of jail life, has won awards, and can earn £2,500 a canvas.

The Prison Service said of Friday’s rampage: “A prisoner was involved in a minor incident in the gym area.”

WIKIPEDIA BACKGROUND

Charles “Charlie” Bronson (born Michael Gordon Peterson, 6 December 1952) is a British criminal often referred to in the British press as the “most violent prisoner in Britain”.[2]

Born in Aberystwyth, Wales, Peterson often found his way into fights before he began a bare-knuckle boxing career in the East End of London. His promoter was not happy with his name and suggested he change it to Charles Bronson.

In 1974 he was imprisoned for a robbery and sentenced to seven years. While in prison he began making a name for himself as a loose cannon, often fighting convicts and prison guards. These fights added years onto his sentence. Regarded as a problem prisoner, he was moved 120 times throughout Her Majesty’s Prison Service and spent most of that time in solitary confinement. What was originally a seven year term stretched out to a fourteen year sentence that resulted in his first wife, Irene, with whom he had a son, leaving him. He was released on October 30, 1988 but only spent 69 days as a free man before he was arrested again.

While in jail in 2001 he married his second wife, Fatema Saira Rehman, a Bangladeshi-born divorcée who inspired him to convert to Islam and take the name of Charles Ali Ahmed. This second marriage lasted four years before he got divorced and renounced Islam.

Bronson is one of the most high profile criminals in Britain, and has been the subject of books, interviews and studies in prison reform and treatment. He is the subject of the 2008 film Bronson, the story based loosely around significant events during his life. In addition Bronson has himself written many books about his experiences and famous prisoners he has met throughout his internment. A self-declared fitness fanatic who spent multiple years in solitary, Bronson dedicated a book to working out in confined spaces.

[edit]Early life[edit]Before prison

Luton, England, which Bronson considers his home town

Bronson was one of three sons [3] of Eira and Joe Peterson, who would later run the Conservative club in Aberystwyth. His uncle and aunt were mayor and mayoress of the town in the 1960s and 1970s. His aunt, Eileen Parry, is quoted as saying, “As a boy he was a lovely lad. He was obviously bright and always good with children. He was gentle and mild-mannered, never a bully – he would defend the weak.”[4]

He lived in Luton from the age of four but, when he was a teenager, Bronson moved with his family to Ellesmere PortCheshire, where he started getting into trouble. Bronson later returned to Luton, which is often referred to as his home town, where he earned a living as a circus strongman. He was married in December 1970 to Irene, with whom he had a son, Michael.

[edit]Boxing career and name change

Prior to being imprisoned, Bronson had a short-lived career in bare-knuckle boxing in the East End of London, during which time he became an associate ofLenny McLean. He changed his name from Mick Peterson to Charles Bronson in 1987 on the advice of his fight promoter,[5] “not because he liked the idea of the ‘Death Wish’ films starring the original Charles Bronson.”[6]

[edit]Life in prison

Ashworth Hospital, where Bronson spent some time as behavioural health patient

Bronson was imprisoned for seven years in 1974, aged 22, for an armed robbery at a Post Office in Little Sutton, a suburb of Ellesmere Port, during which he stole £26.18.[7] His sentence was repeatedly extended for crimes committed within prison, which include wounding with intent, wounding, criminal damage,grievous bodily harmfalse imprisonmentblackmail and threatening to kill.

Bronson has served all but four of his years in prison in solitary confinement due to a number of hostage situations, rooftop protests, and repeated attacks on prison staff and on other inmates. His dangerous behaviour has meant that he has spent time in over 120 different prisons, including all three maximum security hospitals: Broadmoor HospitalRampton Secure Hospital, and Ashworth Hospital.[8]

Bronson has spent a total of just four months and nine days out of custody since 1974. He was released on 30 October 1988 and spent 69 days as a free man before being arrested for robbery, and then released again on 9 November 1992, spending 53 days as a free man before being arrested again, this time for conspiracy to rob.[4]

In 1999 a special prison unit was set up for Bronson and two other violent prisoners from Woodhill, to reduce the risk they posed to staff and other prisoners.[9]

In 2000, Bronson received a discretionary life sentence with a three year tariff for a hostage-taking incident. His appeal against this sentence was denied in 2004.[10]

Bronson remained a Category A prisoner when he was moved to Wakefield High-Security Prison.[11] He was due for a parole hearing in September 2008, but this was postponed when his lawyer objected to a one-hour parole interview, requesting a full day to deal with Bronson’s case.[12] The parole hearing took place on 11 March 2009 and parole was refused shortly afterwards.[13] The Parole Board said that Mr Bronson had not proved he was a reformed character.[14]

On 12 November 2010, Bronson was involved in another incident in Wakefield prison’s F Wing, when he stripped naked, covered himself in butter and attacked six guards. Covering himself with butter apparently made him harder to control. Another six warders were brought in and finally restrained him.[15]

The incident followed another attack on warders the previous week during which he injured four attempting to take him back to solitary confinement.[15]

Prison sources said the attack was Bronson’s “protest over an appeal rejection” and fears that he may now spend the rest of his life in prison.[15]

[edit]Hostage incidents

Belmarsh Prison, where Bronson took two Iraqi hijackers hostage

Bronson has been involved in over a dozen hostage incidents, some of which are described below:

  • In 1983, Bronson took hostages and staged a 47-hour rooftop protest at Broadmoor, causing £750,000 of damage.
  • In 1994, while holding a civilian librarian hostage at Woodhill Prison, Milton Keynes, he demanded an inflatable doll, a helicopter and a cup of tea as ransom. Two months later, he held deputy governor Adrian Wallace hostage for five hours at Hull prison, injuring him so badly he was off work for five weeks.[4]
  • In 1998, Bronson took two Iraqi hijackers and another inmate hostage at Belmarsh prison in London. He insisted his hostages address him as “General” and told negotiators he would eat one of his victims quickly unless his demands were met. At one stage, Bronson demanded one of the Iraqis hit him “very hard” over the head with a metal tray. When the hostage refused, Bronson slashed his own shoulder six times with a razor blade. He later told staff: “I’m going to start snapping necks – I’m the number-one hostage taker.” He demanded a plane to take him to Cuba, two Uzi sub-machine guns, 5,000 rounds of ammunition, and an axe. In court, he said he was “as guilty as Adolf Hitler“, adding, “I was on a mission of madness, but now I’m on a mission of peace and all I want to do now is go home and have a pint with my son.” Another seven years were added to his sentence.[4]
  • In 1999, he took Phil Danielson, a civilian education officer, hostage at Hull prison.[3] He can be seen in CCTV footage singing the song “Yellow Submarine“, walking around with a makeshift spear[citation needed] (after having caused havoc inside the prison) and causing the wing to be locked up for over 40 hours.
  • In 2007, two prison staff members at Full Sutton high security prison in the East Riding of Yorkshire were involved in a “control and restraint incident”, in an attempt to prevent another hostage situation, during which Bronson (who by now needed spectacles) had his glasses broken. Bronson received £200 compensation for his broken glasses,[11] which he claimed were made of “pre-war gold” and given to him by Lord Longford.[citation needed]

[edit]Personal life

[edit]First marriage

Bronson met his first wife, Irene, in 1969, when he was still called Michael Peterson. Irene remembers that he “was so different from any other boys I knew. He always wore tailored suits, had perfectly-groomed sideburns and a Cockney accent.”[16] Eight months later, when Irene was 4 months pregnant, they married at Chester Register Office in December 1970. Four years later, when their son Mike was three years old, the police raided their house searching for Peterson. He was eventually caught and sent to prison. Five years later they divorced and Irene later remarried and became Irene Dunroe. She had two children with her new husband.[16]

[edit]Second marriage and second name change

In 2001, Bronson married again, this time in Milton Keynes‘, HMP Woodhill to Fatema Saira Rehman, a Bangladeshi-born divorcee[17] who had seen his picture in a newspaper and begun writing to him. Rehman had visited Bronson ten times prior to their wedding.[18][19] She had worked at a women’s shelter prior to their meeting, but lost her job when her employer found out about the relationship.[20]For a short time, Bronson converted to Islam (Rehman is Muslim) and wished to be known as Charles Ali Ahmed. After four years he and Rehman divorced.[16] Rehman has since given many interviews regarding her short marriage to Bronson, portraying him in a negative light. In one interview she was quoted as saying, “He fooled me – he is nothing but an abusive, racist thug.”[3]

Bronson claims that shortly after the 9-11 attacks in New York, two men visited him (he was then known as Ahmed) offering to release him into general population if he would infiltrate the Muslim prison population.[21]

[edit]Occupations and projects

While in prison, Bronson has developed an extreme fitness regime and claims he is still able to do 172 press-ups in 60 seconds and 94 press-ups in 30 seconds.[22] In 2002, he published the bookSolitary Fitness, detailing an individual training process with minimal resources and space.[23]

For the past ten years, Bronson has occupied himself by writing poetry and producing pieces of art; he has had eleven books published, including in 2008 his only self-penned book Loonyology: In My Own Words. He has won 11 Koestler Trust Awards for his poetry and art.[24]

On 28 April 2010, BBC News reported that artwork by Bronson were displayed on the London Underground at Angel Station from 26 April 2010 for two weeks. The display was organised by Art Below, which is unrelated to the official Transport For London art program, and there is controversy over whether it should have been shown.[25] His work has since been removed by an unknown party.[25]

[edit]Film of Bronson’s life

Bronson, which loosely follows Bronson’s life, was released in Britain on 13 March 2009. It stars Tom Hardy in the titular role, and is directed by Nicolas Winding Refn.[26] There was some controversy caused at the première, when a recording of Bronson’s voice was played with no prior permission granted by officers at HM Prison Service, who called for an inquiry into how the recording had been made.[27]

[edit]Bibliography

  • Bronson, Charles; Richards, Stephen (2002). Solitary Fitness (2002 ed.). Mirage. ISBN 1902578120- Total pages: 215
  • Bronson, Charles. Loonyology: In My Own Words (2 Nov 2009 ed.). Apex Publishing Ltd.ISBN 1906358117.- Total pages: 466
  • Bronson, Charles. Diaries from Hell: Charles Bronson – My Prison Diaries (1 May 2009 ed.). Y Lolfa.ISBN 1847711162.- Total pages: 464
  • Bronson, Charles; Richards, Stephen (1999). The Charles Bronson Book of Poems: Birdman Opens His Mind Bk. 1 (1 May 1999 ed.). Mirage. ISBN 1902578031- Total pages: 78
  • Bronson, Charles; Richards, Stephen. Silent Scream: The Charles Bronson Story (5 Sep 1999 ed.). Mirage. ISBN 1902578082- Total pages: 248
  • Bronson, Charles. Emmins, Mark. ed. Con-artist (19 Dec 2008 ed.). Matador. ISBN 1848760485- Total pages: 108

THE SEEMINGLY WRONGLY INSTITUTIONALISED AND STILL INCARCERATED “CHARLES BRONSON ” ( NOW KNOWN AS CHARLES SALVADOR ) RECEIVES A FURTHER 2 YEAR IMPRISONMENT FOR ASSAULT ON PRISON GOVERNOR .

AS REPORTED ON THE DAILY MAIL ONLINE 2 SEPTEMBER 2014………….

Britain’s most notorious lifer Charles Bronson pictured for the first time in a decade – as he’s convicted of yet ANOTHER vicious assault on prison governor

Bronson, who has attacked multiple prison officers and inmates during his 40 years in prison, today plead guilty to the actual bodily harm of prison governor Alan Parkins.

He was photographed being escorted into a prison van flanked by security guards following the court hearing – at which he was sentenced to another two years in jail.

Notorious prisoner Charles Bronson pictured being escorted to a prison van following his court appearance today. It is believed to be the first photo taken of him in a decade

The images show him wearing prison overalls and trademark round glasses, and he is clean shaven aside from the signature handlebar moustache.

Bronson, who has changed his name by deed poll to Charles Salvador, left the governor with multiple injuries following the attack on February 28 this year.

 It was believed the 61-year-old, jailed for an initial seven years but now serving a life sentence for kidnap while behind bars, was angry that prison staff had withheld mail from him.

He had held Mr Parkins, of Woodhill Prison in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, in a headlock so tightly that he was unable to breathe during the incident shortly before 8am.

The notorious inmate also struck the prison chief several times over the head before a group of prison officers rushed to free the governor from his grip and Bronson was restrained.

Bronson pictured in April 2004 at The Old Bailey. It is one of only two photos of him taken that year

Bronson pictured in April 2004 at The Old Bailey. It is one of only two photos of him taken that year

Bronson pictured in Wakefield Prison in June 2004 in a return to his trademark moustache and glasses

Governor Parkins was left with a bloody nose and scrapes on his face, as well as bruising on his shoulder and arm.

Last month Bronson declared, via his supporters’ appeal fund page, he had changed his surname from Bronson to Salvador.

In a rambling statement, he wrote: ‘Bronson came alive in 1987. He died in 2014. Come on. The boy done well. But he’s finished.

‘It’s now Salvador all the way to Disneyland. Your (sic) welcome to join the ride but it’s non-violent all the way.

‘It’s a peaceful journey from here on. The creator will create masterpieces.’

The statement was signed ‘Charles Salvador’.

Today he sat in the secure dock surrounded by six prison guards, with further police equipped with riot gear outside Amersham Crown Court.

Detective Sergeant James Shepherd said the police were pleased Bronson chose to plead guilty at the hearing

He added: ‘Police were immediately informed following this incident in February and conducted a full interview.

‘Bronson declined to make any comment in interviews, stating only that he would save his comments for a jury.’

Bronson has spent only four months and nine days outside prison since first being convicted in 1974.

He has been in solitary confinement for 36 years of that time and was given a life sentence after holding a prison art teacher hostage in 1999.

The statement released by Bronson’s appeal fund in which he renounces violence and declares his name change

 The second page discusses his decision to start again with the new name and is signed Charles Salvador

The second page discusses his decision to start again with the new name and is signed Charles Salvador

Violent prisoner Charles Bronson, pictured in 1997, has spent 36 years in solitary confinement

Violent prisoner Charles Bronson, pictured in 1997, has spent 36 years in solitary confinement

  • 1974: First jailed, aged 22, for armed robbery (seven years jail).
  • 1975: Attacked fellow prisoner with a glass jug. (nine months jail)
  • 1985: A three-day rooftop protest at Walton Gaol caused £100,000 worth of damage (one year jail)
  • 1988: Sent back to prison for robbing a jewellery shop. (seven years jail)
  • 1992: Released from prison but shortly afterwards found guilty of intent to rob. (eight years jail)
  • 1994: Holds prison librarian hostage, demanding inflatable doll, helicopter and cup of tea (eight years jail).
  • 1998: Takes three inmates hostage at Belmarsh. Insists they call him ‘General’ and threatens to eat one of them unless demands are met (five years jail, reduced from seven on appeal).
  • 1999: Given life sentence for kidnapping prison teacher Phil Danielson at Hull jail (life sentence with a three year tariff).
  • 2014: Assaulted prison governor Alan Parkins (two years jail)

THE CHARLES BRONSON ( NOW CHARLES SALVADOR) EXHIBITION AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL , 

WE AT THE CRIME THROUGH TIME COLLECTION HERE AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL WISH TO CONTINUALLY SUPPORT CHARLIE IN HIS ONGOING AND NEVER ENDING LEGAL BATTLE.   ALL THE VERY BEST WITH HIS LONG AWAITED 2014 APPEAL (IF IT EVER COMES TO COURT? ) FOR HIS FREEDOM, AFTER HAVING SERVED IN EXCESS OF SOME 40 YEARS IN PRISON .

LET US NOT FORGET HE HAS NEVER KILLED ANYONE, HE IS NOT A TERRORIST AND HAS ALWAYS BEEN THE FIRST TO PUT HIS HANDS UP TO ALL HIS WRONG DOINGS FOR WHICH HE HAS SERVED FAR MORE TIME THAN DESERVED .

SADLY HOWEVER .. AS IS SEEMINGLY ALWAYS THE CASE, THE ESTABLISHMENT APPEAR TO WANT TO HOLD BACK FROM GIVING HIM ANY REASONABLE REHABILITATION OR PROGRESS TO HELP HIM BE RELEASED  BACK INTO SOCIETY. NOT EVEN ENCOURAGED TO BE DECATEGORISED WITHIN THE PRISON SYSTEM .

ALL THE VERY BEST ………….ANDY JONES….LITTLEDEAN JAIL

 

BELOW IS A GREAT, FROM THE HEART, VERSION OF THE CLASSIC FRANK SINATRA , AND SID VICIOUS (SEX PISTOLS) HIT …”MY WAY ” .

AND YES BELIEVE IT OR NOT THIS WAS ACTUALLY SANG BY CHARLIE BRONSON HIMSELF WHILST STILL IN SOLITARY CONFINEMENT  AS A CAT A PRISONER IN A HIGH SECURITY PRISON  HERE IN THE UK……………….

 

 

CaptureADO COME VISIT AND SEE FOR YOURSELVES THE CHARLES BRONSON EXHIBITION AND INSIGHT INTO THE MAN HIMSELF HERE AT THE CRIME THROUGH TIME COLLECTION HERE AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL, FOREST OF DEAN , GLOUCESTERSHIRE ,UK . WE WILL BE REOPENING TO THE PUBLIC FOR THE FORTHCOMING TOURISM SEASON ON THE 28TH MARCH 2013 .

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A FULL SCALE REPLICA MODEL OF THE IRANIAN EMBASSY SIEGE BUILDING AS USED BY “B” SQUADRON 22 SAS REGIMENT FOR THE PREPARATION FOR THE SUCCESSFUL FINAL ASSAULT ON 5 MAY 1980, WHICH RESULTED IN 19 HOSTAGES BEING RESCUED AND 5 OF THE 6 TERRORISTS BEING KILLED (THE 6th BEING CAPTURED )

JSN_2185HERE IS A  UNIQUE REPLICA  SCALE MODEL OF THE IRANIAN EMBASSY AS WAS CONSTRUCTED AND  USED  BY “B” SQUADRON 22 SAS REGIMENT IN THE RUN-UP TO THE FINAL ASSAULT ON 5 MAY 1980 …. RESULTING IN THE  KILLING OF 5 OF THE 6 TERRORISTS AND THE RELEASE OF THE REMAINING 19 HOSTAGES .

THIS BEING KINDLY HAND BUILT BY FORMER “A” SQUADRON FREEFALL TROOPER …BOB PODESTA  FOR DISPLAY AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL’S… “SAS WHO DARES WINS EXHIBITION ” . THE MODEL HAS BEEN FURTHER CUSTOMISED WITH THE HELP OF PAUL BRIDGMAN WITH THE INCLUSION OF THE VARIOUS FIGURES DEPICTING HOSTAGES, TERRORISTS (ALL IN GREEN JACKETS AND BLACK CLOTHING ), THE SAS TROOPERS AND RESERVES STORMING THE EMBASSY BUILDING AND VARIOUS OTHER SCENES RELATING TO THE EVENT .

 

STORMING OF THE IRANIAN EMBASSY 5 MAY 1980 “LEST WE FORGET” THE LEGENDARY HEROIC SAS SOLDIER – JOHN McALEESE (25 April 1949 – 26 August 2011)

COUNTER REVOLUTIONARY WARFARE (CRW) , TERRORISM AND COUNTER TERRORISM WITH THE UK’S SPECIAL FORCES HERE ON DISPLAY AT THE CRIME THROUGH TIME COLLECTION , LITTLEDEAN JAIL

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ABOVE IS A RARE  JOHN McALEESE ( SIGNED JOHN MAC)  HAND SIGNED             ( SIGNED JOHN MAC) LIMITED EDITION HECKLER AND KOCH POSTER COMMEMORATING THE SUCCESSFUL SAS OPERATION NIMROD STORMING OF THE IRANIAN EMBASSY TO END THE  SEIGE ON MAY 5, 1980 . ON DISPLAY HERE IN AMONGST OUR SAS WHO DARES WINS EXHIBITION AT THE JAIL .

DO COME VISIT AND SEE OUR EVER EXPANDING  AND HISTORICALLY  INTRIGUING PRIVATELY OWNED COLLECTION OF SAS MEMORABILIA AND EPHEMERA ….HOPEFULLY THIS  PROVIDES YOU AS VISITORS WITH A  FASCINATING INSIGHT INTO THE HEROIC SAS AND INDEED OTHER SPECIAL FORCES THAT WE FEATURE HERE ON DISPLAY AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL ALONG WITH OUR MASS OF OTHER POLICE  AND TRUE CRIME  EXHIBIT MATERIAL

HERE BELOW IS AN ORIGINAL ORDER OF SERVICE OF THE SAS FUNERAL FOR  JOHN McALEESE ALONG WITH SOME INFORMATIVE BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND INTERACTIVE VIDEO FOOTAGE .

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RIP JOHN McALEESE (25 April 1949 – 26 August 2011) BELOW IS AN EXCEPTIONALLY RARE  JOHN McALEESE HAND SIGNED ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPH (SIGNED AS JOHN MAC ) . ALSO SIGNED BY PETE WINNER (AS SOLDIER I ) … AND PETE SCHOLEY . THE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS THE THEN PRIME MINISTER – MARGARET THATCHER WITH  THREE UN-NAMED MEMBERS OF THE SAS  OUTSIDE THE SAS “KILLING HOUSE” IN 1980 SHORTLY AFTER THE IRANIAN EMBASSY SIEGE,  NOW ON DISPLAY AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL AS PART OF THE “SAS -WHO DARES WINS” EXHIBITION

JSN_4583BELOW IS THE ORIGINAL METROPOLITAN POLICE FORENSIC EXHIBIT IDENTIFICATION TAG (FORM 420) THAT WAS ATTACHED TO THE WEAPON FIRED BY SAS TROOPER- JOHN McALEESE DURING THE IRANIAN EMBASSY SIEGE  ON THE 5TH MAY 1980. PERSONALLY SIGNED BY BOTH HIM AND THE INVESTIGATING OFFICERS WHO WERE HANDED ALL THE USED WEAPONS AFTER THE SUCCESSFUL OPERATION . NOW ON DISPLAY AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL AS PART OF THE “SAS -WHO DARES WINS” EXHIBITION

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FREEDOM Honour for SAS HERO

SAS hero John McAleese, who was involved in the dramatic raid that ended the 1980 siege on the Iranian Embassy in London, has died, the Foreign Office confirmed.
Published on Thursday 1 September 2011 14:23

an UNSUNG hero is finally to be honoured by his home town. John McAleese, the SAS legend from Laurieston who led the dramatic raid on the Iranian embassy in London more than 30 years ago, died in Greece last Friday. Now there are moves to posthumously award him the Freedom of Falkirk, an honour most recently given to servicemen and women from the Second World War. However, the priority for his grief-stricken family is to bring the former soldier’s body home to allow the funeral to take place. Last night (Wednesday), his twin brother Billy (62) said: “We don’t know when we’ll get him back. Apparently it costs £20,000 and I don’t know what’s going to happen.”

He added that he was still struggling to come to terms with the loss of his twin, who was born 20 minutes after him. Billy said: “My son got a text message from John’s daughter Hayley and told me. I still can’t believe it.” The pair were brought up, along with older sister Eleanor, in the family home in Livingston Drive by parents Bill and Grace. They went to Laurieston Primary then Graeme High School. John had a variety of jobs as a teenager, including at Grangemouth Docks and the British Aluminium. A former Army cadet, he joined the Royal Engineers in 1970, serving around the world for over 23 years. He spent 17 years with 22 SAS and was often seconded to protection duty, guarding prime ministers and royalty. But it was his major role in rescuing 19 hostages in 1980 that put him in the spotlight. Days earlier, six armed men had taken the hostages and demanded the release of political prisoners. The world watched as the events unfolded in dramatic TV coverage. Then a Lance Corporal, John was in full view on the balcony, laying the explosive charge and leaping back as the blast blew in the windows. Billy said: “I saw it on TV and, although they were masked, I knew it was him. I phoned his wife to ask where he was and she said he was on holiday in London but I knew that wasn’t true. “He didn’t talk a lot about what he did, he couldn’t. John got the Military Medal while in Northern Ireland but I never heard why.” After leaving the Army, John worked as a security consultant and in 2003 co-presented a BBC TV programme ‘The SAS: Are You Tough Enough?’ However, two years ago he was back in the spotlight but in tragic circumstances. His son Paul, a sergeant in the 2nd Battalion the Rifles, was killed in Afghanistan. Announcing her father’s death, daughter Hayley (28) said she believed that he had died of a broken heart on the eve of the anniversary of Paul being killed. Married twice, John is also survived by son Kieran and step-daughter Jessica. Announcing plans for the Falkirk honour, Provost Pat Reid said: “He was very much an unsung hero and it would be appropriate for us to confer this honour, the highest the district can give, to mark his courage.