The UK’s 1970’s & 80’s allegedly drug-fuelled & controversial underground youth culture movement …. Northern Soul – now down here in the South of England on display alongside The Quadrophenia Collection … at Littledean Jail

  

Set in Lancashire in 1974, the film follows Matt and John as they leave behind a humdrum life of youth clubs and factory lines to chase a dream of travelling to the US, unearthing unknown soul 45s and establishing themselves as top DJ’s on the Northern soul music scene. Their dance and amphetamine fuelled quest brings them into contact with some of the darker elements of the scene and tests their friendship to its limits

A BRIEF INSIGHT INTO SOME  OF THE GREAT MANY EXHIBIT ITEMS ON THE NORTHERN SOUL FRONTS ON DISPLAY AT THE “TASTE OF NORTHERN SOUL DOWN HERE IN THE SOUTH EXHIBITION “….INCLUDES ORIGINAL WIGAN CASINO,  TWISTED WHEEL  AND OTHER NORTHERN SOUL MEMBERSHIP CARDS, FLYERS, ORIGINAL AND VINTAGE WOVEN CLUB PATCHES , VINTAGE PATCHED SPORTS HOLDALLS,VINYL  AND OTHER ASSOCIATED MEMORABILIA .

FW

Because of the scarcity of the original single and the high quality of the music (it was one of the most popular records in the Northern Soul movement), it has been championed as one of the rarest and most valuable records in history (along with other “impossible to find” records by such acts as Bessie Smith, Louis Armstrong, and the Five Sharps).

HERE BELOW IS A VERY , VERY BRIEF INSIGHT GALLERY INTO A FEW OF THE ORIGINAL  NORTHERN SOUL MEMORABILIA ITEMS HERE ON DISPLAY . DO COME VISIT TO SEE WHAT IS UNDOUBTEDLY ONE OF THE LARGEST PRIVATE COLLECTIONS OF SUCH SOUGHT AFTER MATERIAL .

  DO SEE MORE PICTORIAL CONTENT IN SOME OF OUR PREVIOUS  POSTS ON OUR FACEBOOK PAGE AS TO FURTHER EXHIBIT ITEMS HERE ON DISPLAY IN OUR “A TASTE OF NORTHERN SOUL DOWN HERE IN THE SOUTH OF ENGLAND EXHIBITION”

Open The Door To Your Heart by Darrell Banks: ‘Holy grail’ Northern Soul single sells for £14,543

i

A single dubbed the rarest record in the world sold for £14,543 at auction tonight.

Derek Smiley, a Northern Soul DJ in Cambridge, was among the bidders for Darrell Banks’ club classic Open the Door to Your Heart, but gave up when the price went “out of his league”.

John Manship, who hosted the online auction at raresoulman.co.uk, said the website crashed as “thousands upon thousands” of people visited the page as the auction came to  a close at 6pm.

He said: “I’ve never seen anything like it before. The winner came in a few seconds before the end which is just a ridiculous thing to do, but he’s won it fair and square.”

He said all the bidders were previously known to him, apart from the winner, who he said lived in Britain. —————————————————————————————————————

Northern soul

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Northern soul
Stylistic origins Soul
Rhythm and blues
Gospel
Cultural origins Northern England
Typical instruments Strings
Horns
Guitar
Vocals
Mainstream popularity From late 1960s onwards
Derivative forms Modern soulMadchesterMod revivalrave culture
Other topics
Motown RecordsMod subcultureSkinhead

Northern soul is a music and dance movement that emerged from the British mod scene, initially in northern England in the late 1960s. Northern soul mainly consists of a particular style of black American soul music based on the heavy beat and fast tempo of the mid-1960s Tamla Motown sound. The northern soul movement, however, generally eschews Motown or Motown-influenced music that has met with significant mainstream success. The recordings most prized by enthusiasts of the genre are usually by lesser-known artists, and were initially released only in limited numbers, often by small regional United States labels such as Ric-Tic and Golden World (Detroit), Mirwood (Los Angeles) and Shout and Okeh (New York/Chicago).

Northern soul is also associated with particular dance styles and fashions that grew out of the underground rhythm & soul scene of the late 1960s, at venues such as the Twisted Wheel in Manchester. This scene (and the associated dances and fashions) quickly spread to other UK dancehalls andnightclubs like the Catacombs (Wolverhampton), the Highland Rooms at Blackpool MeccaGolden Torch (Stoke-on-Trent), and Wigan Casino. As the favoured beat became more uptempo and frantic, by the early 1970s, northern soul dancing became more athletic, somewhat resembling the later dance styles of disco and break dancing. Featuring spins, flips, karate kicks and backdrops, club dancing styles were often inspired by the stage performances of touring American soul acts such as Little Anthony & The Imperials and Jackie Wilson.

During the Northern soul scene’s initial years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, popular Northern Soul records were usually not recent releases, and generally dated from the mid-1960s. This meant that the movement was sustained (and “new” recordings added to playlists) by prominent DJs discovering rare and previously overlooked records. Later on, certain clubs and DJs began to move away from the 1960s Motown sound and began to play newer releases with a more contemporary sound.


[edit]

History

Photograph of a sew-on patch featuring the clenched fist symbol adopted by the northern soul movement

The phrase northern soul emanated from the record shop Soul City in Covent Garden, London, which was run by journalist Dave Godin.[1] It was first publicly used in Godin’s weekly column in Blues and Soul magazine in June 1970.[2] In a 2002 interview with Chris Hunt of Mojo magazine, Godin said he had first come up with the term in 1968, to help employees at Soul City differentiate the more modern funkier sounds from the smoother, Motown-influenced soul of a few years earlier. With contemporary black music evolving into what would eventually become known as funk, to differentiate the tastes of the die-hard soul-lovers of the north, whose musical preferences seemed to have stalled somewhere in that classic mid-’60s era of Motown-sounding black American dance, Godin referred to their requests as ‘Northern Soul’:

I had started to notice that northern football fans who were in London to follow their team were coming into the store to buy records, but they weren’t interested in the latest developments in the black American chart. I devised the name as a shorthand sales term. It was just to say ‘if you’ve got customers from the north, don’t waste time playing them records currently in the U.S. black chart, just play them what they like – ‘Northern Soul’.[3]

The venue most commonly associated with the early development of the northern soul scene was the Twisted Wheel in Manchester and the Room at The Top in Wigan. The club began in the early 1950s as a beatnik coffee bar called The Left Wing, but in early 1963, the run-down premises were leased by two Manchester businessmen (Ivor and Phil Abadi) and turned into a music venue.[4] Initially the Twisted Wheel mainly hosted live music on the weekends andDisc Only nights during the week. Starting in September 1963, the Abadi brothers promoted all-night parties at the venue on Saturday nights, with a mixture of live and recorded music. DJ Roger Eagle, a collector of imported American soul, jazz and rhythm and blues, was booked around this time, and the club’s reputation as a place to hear and dance to the latest American R&B music began to grow.

Throughout the mid-1960s, the Twisted Wheel became the focus of Manchester’s emerging mod scene, with a music policy that reflected Eagle’s eclectic tastes in soul and jazz, and featuring live performances by British beat musicians and American R&B stars. Gradually, the music policy became less eclectic and shifted heavily towards fast-paced soul, in response to the demands of the growing crowds of amphetamine-fuelled dancers who flocked to the all-nighters. Dismayed at the change in music policy and the frequent drug raids by the police, Eagle quit the club in 1966

Commemorative sew-on patch similar to those worn by Twisted Wheel members.

By 1968 the reputation of the Twisted Wheel and the type of music being played there had grown nationwide.Soul fans were traveling from all over the United Kingdom to attend the Saturday all-nighters, with resident ‘All Niter’ DJ Bob Dee compiling & supervising [5] the playlist and utilising the newly developed slip-cueing technique to spin the vinyl between 1968 and the club’s eventual closure in 1971 .[6] [7] After attending one of the venue’s all-nighters in November 1970, Godin wrote: “…it is without doubt the highest and finest I have seen outside of the USA… never thought I’d live to see the day where people could so relate the rhythmic content of Soul music to bodily movement to such a skilled degree!”[8] The venue’s owners had successfully been able to fill the vacancy left by Eagle with a growing roster of specialist soul DJs.

The Twisted Wheel gained a reputation as a drug haven, and under pressure from the police and other authorities, the club closed in January 1971. However, by the late 1960s, the popularity of the music and lifestyle associated with the club had spread further across the north and midlands of England, and a number of new venues had begun to host soul all-nighters. These included the King Mojo in Sheffield, The Catacombs in Wolverhampton, Room at the Top in Wigan and Va Va’s in Bolton.

[edit]1970s

Commemorative sew-on patch similar to those worn by Golden Torch members.

Northern soul reached the peak of its popularity in the mid to late 1970s.[9] At this time, there were soul clubs in virtually every major town in the midlands and the north of England.[10] The three venues regarded as the most important in this decade were the Golden Torch in Tunstall, Stoke (1971 to 1972), Blackpool Mecca (1971 to 1979) and Wigan Casino (1973 to 1981).

Although Wigan Casino is now the most well known, the best attended northern soul all-night venue at the beginning of the decade was the Golden Torch, where regular Friday night soul “all-nighters” began in late 1970. Chris Burton, the owner, stated that in 1972, the club had a membership of 12,500, and 62,000 separate customer visits.[11] Despite its popularity, the club closed down due to licensing problems in March, 1972 and attention switched to soul nights at Blackpool Mecca’s Highland Room, which had started hosting rare soul nights in late 1971.

Commemorative sew-on patch similar to those designed by Russ Winstanley and sold at the Wigan Casino.

Wigan Casino began its weekly soul all-nighters in September 1973.[12] Wigan Casino had a much larger capacity than many competing venues and ran its events from 2am until 8am. There was a regular roster of DJs, including the promoter Russ Winstanley. By 1976, the club boasted a membership of 100,000 people, and in 1978, was voted the world’s number one discotheque by the American magazine Billboard.[13] This was during the heyday of the Studio 54 nightclub in New York City. By the late 1970s, the club had its own spin-off record label, Casino Classics.[14]

By this time, Wigan Casino was coming under criticism from many soul fans. Contemporary black American soul was changing with the advent of funkdisco and jazz-funk, and the supply of recordings with the fast-paced northern soul sound began to dwindle rapidly. Wigan Casino DJs resorted to playing any kind of record that matched the correct tempo.[15] Also, the club was subjected to heavy media coverage and began to attract many otherwise uninterested people whom the soul purists did not approve of.[16]

Blackpool Mecca was popular throughout the 1970s, although the venue never hosted all-nighters. The regular Saturday night events began at 8pm and finished at 2am, and initially, some dancers would begin their evenings at Blackpool Mecca and then transfer to Wigan Casino. In 1974, the music policy at Blackpool Mecca sharply diverged from Wigan Casino’s, with the regular DJs Ian Levine and Colin Curtis including newly released US soul in their sets. Whilst the tempo was similar to the earlier Motown Records-style recordings, this shift in emphasis heralded a slightly different style of northern soul dancing and dress styles at Blackpool Mecca and created a schism in the northern soul movement between Wigan Casino’s traditionalists and Blackpool Mecca’s wider approach, which accepted the more contemporary sounds of Philly soul, early disco and funk.

Other major northern soul venues in the 1970s include The Catacombs in Wolverhampton, Va Va’s in Bolton, the ‘Talk of The North’ all-nighters at The Pier and Winter Gardens in Cleethorpes, Tiffany’s in Coalville, Samantha’s in Sheffield, Neil Rushton‘s ‘Heart of England’ soul club all-dayers at The Ritz in Manchester and the Nottingham Palais.[17] As the 1970s progressed, the northern soul scene expanded even further nationally. There was a notable scene in the east of England with all-nighters at the St. Ivo Centre in St. Ives, the Phoenix Soul club at the Wirrina Stadium in Peterborough and the Howard Mallett in Cambridge.[18] Other towns with notable northern soul venues at this time included Kettering, Coventry, Bournemouth, Southampton and Bristol.[19]

[edit]1980s and later

When Wigan Casino closed in 1981, many believed that the northern soul scene was on the verge of disintegrating. However, the 1970s mod revival, the thriving scooterboy subculture and the acid jazzmovement produced a new wave of fans. The popularity of the music was further bolstered in the 1980s by a wave of reissues and compilation albums from small British independent record labels. Many of these labels were set up by DJs and collectors who had been part of the original northern soul scene. The 1980s — often dismissed as a low period for northern soul by those who had left the scene in the 1970s — featured almost 100 new venues in places as diverse as Bradford, London, Peterborough, Leighton Buzzard, Whitchurch, Coventry and Leicester. Pre-eminent among the 1980s venues were Stafford‘s Top of the World and London‘s 100 Club.

Today there are regular northern soul events in various parts of the United Kingdom, such as The Nightshift Club all-nighters at the Bisley Pavilion in Surrey and the Prestatyn Weekender in North Wales.[20] In an August 2008 article in The Times, broadcaster Terry Christian argued that northern soul was undergoing a distinct revival in the late 2000s.[21] Christian cited the popularity of regular revivals of Twisted Wheel soul all-nighters at the original venue (in Whitworth Street, Manchester) plus the Beat Boutique northern soul all-nighters at the Ruby Lounge and MMUnion in Manchester. Many of those who ceased their involvement in the late 1970s have now returned to the scene and regularly participate in such events.[22][23] As of 2009, Paul O’Grady has included a Northern Soul Triple in his weekly BBC Radio 2 show. He plays three northern soul hits, often at the request of his listeners.[24]

The northern soul soul movement has inspired the movie Soulboy (2010), directed by Shimmy Marcus, and at least one novel: Do I Love You? (2008) by Paul McDonald[25][26] [27] In June 2010, theatre director Fiona Laird wrote and directed Keeping the Faith, a musical based on the Wigan Casino scene and featuring northern soul music. It was staged at the Central School of Speech and Drama’s Webber Douglas Studio, with a revival at the same venue in September 2010.

[edit]Music, artists and records

Photograph of the original release (left) and a re-issue copy (right) of Gloria Jones‘ Tainted Love

In the book Last Night A DJ Saved My Life: the history of the DJ, the authors describe northern soul as “a genre built from failures”, stating: “…Northern Soul was the music made by hundreds of singers and bands who were copying the Detroit sound of Motown pop. Most of the records were complete failures in their own time and place… but in northern England from the end of the 1960s through to its heyday in the middle 1970s, were exhumed and exalted.”[28]

[edit]Music style

The music style most associated with northern soul is the heavy, syncopated beat and fast tempo of mid-1960s Motown Records, which was usually combined with soulful vocals. These types of records, which suited the athletic dancing that was prevalent, became known on the scene as stompers.[29] Notable examples include Tony Clarke’s “Landslide” (popularised by Ian Levine at Blackpool Mecca)[30] and Gloria Jones’ “Tainted Love” (purchased by Richard Searling on a trip to the United States in 1973 and popularised at Va Va’s in Bolton, and later, Wigan Casino).[31] According to northern soul DJ Ady Croadsell, viewed retrospectively, the earliest recording to possess this style was the 1965 single “I Can’t Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)” by The Four Tops, although that record was never popular in the northern soul scene because it was too mainstream.[32]

Other related music styles also gained acceptance in the northern soul scene. Slower, less-danceable soul records were often played, such as Barbara Mills’ “Queen Of Fools” (popular in 1972 at the Golden Torch)[33] and The Mob’s “I Dig Everything About You”.[34] Every all-nighter at Wigan Casino ended with the playing of three well-known northern soul songs with a particular going home theme. These came to be known as the “3 before 8” and were: “Time Will Pass You By” by Tobi Legend, “Long After Tonight Is Over” by Jimmy Radcliffe, and “I’m On My Way” by Dean Parrish.[35]Commercial pop songs that matched the up-tempo beat of the stompers were also played at some venues, including The Ron Grainer Orchestra’s instrumental “Theme From Joe 90” at Wigan Casino[36] and The Just Brothers’ surf-guitar song “Sliced Tomatoes” at Blackpool Mecca.[37]

As the scene developed in the mid and late 1970s, the more contemporary and rhythmically sophisticated sounds of disco and Philly Soul became accepted at certain venues following its adoption at Blackpool Mecca. This style is typified musically by the O’Jays‘ “I Love Music” (UK #13, January 1976), which gained popularity prior to its commercial release at Blackpool Mecca in late 1975. The record that initially popularised this change is usually cited as The Carstair’s “It Really Hurts Me Girl” (Red Coach), a record initially released late in 1973 on promotional copies – but quickly withdrawn due to lack of interest from American Radio stations.[38] The hostility towards any contemporary music style from northern soul traditionalists at Wigan Casino led to the creation of the spin-off modern soul movement in the early 1980s.

[edit]Rarity

As venues such as the Twisted Wheel evolved into northern soul clubs in the late 1960s and the dancers increasingly demanded newly discovered sounds, DJs began to acquire and play rare and often deleted US releases that had not gained even a release in the UK.”[39] These records were sometimes obtained through specialist importers or, in some cases, by DJs visiting the US and purchasing old warehouse stock.[40] Some records were so rare that only a handful of copies were known to exist, so northern soul DJs and clubs became associated with particular records that were almost exclusively on their own playlists. Many of the original artists and musicians remained unaware of their new-found popularity for many years.[41]

As the scene increased in popularity, a network of UK record dealers emerged who were able to acquire further copies of the original vinyl and supply them to fans at prices commensurate with their rarity and desirability.[42] Later on, a number of UK record labels were able to capitalise on the booming popularity of northern soul and negotiate licenses for certain popular records from the copyright holders and reissue them as new 45s or compilation LPs. Amongst these labels were Casino Classics, PYE Disco Demand, Inferno, Kent Modern and Goldmine.[43][44]

The notoriety of DJs on the northern soul scene was enhanced by the possession of rare records, but exclusivity was not enough on its own, and the records had to conform to a certain musical style and gain acceptance on the dance floor.[45] Frank Wilson‘s “Do I Love You (Indeed I Do)” has been rated the rarest and most valuable northern soul single.[46]

[edit]Hits and other favourites

Many songs from the 1960s that were revived on the northern soul scene were reissued by their original labels and became UK top 40 hits in the 1970s. These include The Tams‘ 1964 recording “Hey Girl Don’t Bother Me” (UK #1, July 1971) – which was popularized by Midlands DJ Carl Dene –The Fascinations‘ 1966 single “Girls Are Out To Get You” (UK #32, 1971), The Newbeats‘ 1965 American hit “Run Baby Run” (UK #10, Oct 1971), Bobby Hebb‘s “Love Love Love” which was originally the B-side of his 1966 U.S. #1 “Sunny” (UK #32 August 1972), Robert Knight‘s “Love On A Mountain Top” of 1968 (UK #10, November 1973), and R. Dean Taylor’s “There’s A Ghost In My House” from 1967 (UK #3, May 1974).

The northern soul scene also spawned many lesser chart hits, including Al Wilson‘s 1967 cut “The Snake” (UK #41 in 1975), Dobie Gray‘s “Out On The Floor” (UK #42, September 1975) and Little Anthony & The Imperials‘ “Better Use Your Head” (UK #42 July 1976).

A variety of recordings were made later in the 1970s that were specifically aimed at the northern soul scene, which also went on to become UK top 40 hits. These included: The Exciters’ “Reaching For The Best” (UK #31, October 1975), L.J Johnson’s “Your Magic Put A Spell On Me” (UK #27, February 1976),[47] Tommy Hunt’s “Loving On The Losing Side” (UK #28, August 1976) and “Footsee” by Wigan’s Chosen Few (UK #9, January 1975).[48]

“Goodbye Nothing To Say”, by the white British group The Javells, was identified by Dave McAleer of Pye’s Disco Demand label as having an authentic northern soul feel. McAleer gave a white label promotional copy to Russ Winstanley (a Wigan Casino DJ and promoter), and the tune became popular amongst the dancers at the venue. Disco Demand then released the song as a 45 RPM single, reaching UK #26 in November 1974. To promote the single on BBC’s Top Of The Pops, the performer was accompanied by two Wigan Casino dancers.[49]

In 2000, Wigan Casino DJ Kev Roberts compiled The Northern Soul Top 500, which was based on a survey of northern soul fans.[50] The top ten songs were: “Do I Love You (Indeed I Do)” by Frank Wilson, “Out on the Floor” by Dobie Gray, “You Didn’t Say a Word” by Yvonne Baker, “The Snake” by Al Wilson, “Long After Tonight is Over” by Jimmy Radcliffe, “Seven Day Lover” by James Fountain, “You Don’t Love Me” by Epitome of Sound, “Looking for You” by Garnet Mimms, “If That’s What You Wanted” by Frankie Beverly & the Butlers, and “Seven Days Too Long” by Chuck Wood.

[edit]Fashion and imagery

African American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos performed their Black Powersalute at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City

A large proportion of northern soul’s original audience came from within the 1960s mod subculture. In the late 1960s, when some mods started to embrace freakbeat andpsychedelic rock, other mods – especially those in northern England – stuck to the original mod soundtrack of soul and Blue Beat. From the latter category, two strands emerged: skinheads and the northern soul scene.

Early northern soul fashion included strong elements of the classic mod style, such as button-down Ben Sherman shirts, blazers with centre vents and unusual numbers of buttons, Trickers and brogue shoes and shrink-to-fit Levi’s jeans.[51] Some non-mod items, such as bowling shirts, were also popular. Later, northern soul dancers started to wear light and loose-fitting clothing for reasons of practicality. This included high-waisted, baggy Oxford trousers and sports vests. These were often covered with sew-on badges representing soul club memberships.

The clenched fist symbol that has become associated with the northern soul movement (frequently depicted on sew-on patches) emanates from the Black Power civil rights movement of the 1960s in the United States. The symbol is related to the salute given by African-American athletes at the 1968 Olympic games in Mexico City.[52]On his visit to the Twisted Wheel in 1971, Dave Godin recalled that “…very many young fellows wore black “right on now” racing gloves … between records one would hear the occasional cry of “Right on now!” or see a clenched gloved fist rise over the tops of the heads of the dancers!”[53]

[edit]Drugs

In 2007, Andrew Wilson (lecturer in criminology at the University of Sheffield) published the extensively researched sociological study Northern Soul: Music, drugs and subcultural identity. This work details in some depth the lifestyles associated with the Northern soul scene and the extensive use of Amphetamines (otherwise known asspeed) by many involved. Wilson argues that, whilst a significant proportion did not use drugs, drug usage was heavily ingrained in the fast-paced culture of the northern soul scene and contributed to participants’ ability to stay up all-night dancing. Many clubs and events were closed down or refused licences due to concerns of local authorities that soul nights attracted drug dealers and users.[54] Roger Eagle, DJ at the Twisted Wheel club in Manchester, cited Amphetamine usage amongst participants as his reason for quitting the club in 1967. Of the regular attendees he said, “All they wanted was fast-tempo black dance music… [but they were] too blocked on amphetamines to articulate exactly which Jackie Wilson record they wanted me to play.”[55]

[edit]Influence on DJ culture

The northern soul movement is cited by many as being a significant step towards the creation of contemporary club culture and of the superstar DJ culture of the 2000s.[56] Two of the most notable DJs from the original northern soul era are Russ Winstanley and Ian Levine. As in contemporary club culture, northern soul DJs built up a following based on satisfying the crowd’s desires for music that they could not hear anywhere else. The competitiveness between DJs to unearth ‘in-demand’ sounds led them to cover up the labels on their records, giving rise to the modern white label pressing. Many argue that northern soul was instrumental in creating a network of clubs, DJs, record collectors and dealers in the UK, and was the first music scene to provide the British charts with records that sold entirely on the strength of club play.[57]

A technique employed by northern soul DJs in common with their later counterparts was the sequencing of records to create euphoric highs and lows for the crowd. Many of the DJ personalities and their followers involved in the original northern soul movement went on to become important figures in the house and dance music scenes.[58] Notable among these are Mike Pickering, who introduced house music to The Haçienda in Manchester in the 1980s, the influential DJ Colin CurtisNeil Rushton the A&R manager of the House music record label Kool Kat Music and the dance record producers Pete Waterman, Johnathan Woodliffe, Ian Dewhirst and Ian Levine.

[edit]Influence on musicians

Northern soul has influenced several notable musicians. Terry Christian — in his 2008 article about northern soul for The Times — wrote, “There’s an instant credibility for any artist or brand associated with a scene that has always been wild, free and grassroots.”[59] Soft Cell had chart success with covers of two popular northern soul songs, “Tainted Love” (originally recorded by Gloria Jones) and “What?” (originally recorded by Judy Street). Soft Cell member Dave Ball used to occasionally attend soul nights at Blackpool Mecca and Wigan Casino.[60] Moloko‘s video for “Familiar Feeling” is set against a northern soul backdrop and was directed by Elaine Constantine, a longstanding northern soul enthusiast. The video was choreographed by DJ Keb Darge, who rose to prominence at the Stafford Top Of The World all-nighters in the 1980s.[61]

London based rapper turned soul crooner, Plan B’s second album The Defamation Of Strickland Banks displayed a very significant Northern Soul influence. [62][63] [64]The single Stay Too Long featured Northern Soul style dance moves such as spins, flips and backdrops. The Album sleeve also featured “Plan B sew-on patches”.

TRUE CRIME, MURDERABILIA AND MAIMERABILIA HERE AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL …. GLOUCESTERSHIRE’S EVIL SERIAL KILLERS … FRED & ROSE WEST … PART 3 OF 3

HERE ARE THE LAST THREE PARTS OF THIS “MUST SEE”  IN DEPTH INTERACTIVE  DOCUMENTARY FOOTAGE  INTO THE LIVES AND CRIMES OF FRED AND ROSE WEST INCLUDING ROSE WEST PROSTITUTING HERSELF AT HOME AT 25 CROMWELL STREET , GLOUCESTER . VIDEOED BY HER HUSBAND FRED WEST

WHILST VERY INTRIGUING AND INFORMATIVE DOCUMENTARY FOOTAGE …. PLEASE BE WARNED THAT THERE IS CONSIDERABLE FOUL LANGUAGE IN SEVERAL PARTS FROM BOTH FRED AND ROSE WEST .

HERE AT THE JAIL WE EXHIBIT AND DISPLAY A NUMBER OF PERSONAL ITEMS , WORN  CLOTHING AND ALSO TOOLS OF THE TRADE USED BY FRED WEST

DO COME VISIT THE CRIME THROUGH TIME COLLECTION HERE AT         LITTLEDEAN JAIL  AND SEE OUR EXTENSIVE AND DIVERSE PRIVATE COLLECTION OF TRUE CRIME MURDERABILIA , MEMORABILIA , THE TABOO AND MUCH MUCH MORE .

AS WE ALWAYS SAY …… IF EASILY OFFENDED, DISTURBED OR OF A SENSITIVE NATURE PLEASE DO AVOID VISITING THE JAIL

The nice folks at number 25

Horror House

The world of brutality and degradation sank to a new low with the series of grisly discoveries at Cromwell Street, Gloucester in 1994. The occupants, Rosemary and her husband Fred West, were accused of murdering 10 women and young girls over a 16 year period ending in 1987. They had taken pleasure in luring away vulnerable runaways with offers of rides, lodging or jobs as nannies. Once in their clutches inside the House of Horrors the young women were stripped, bound with tape, abused, tortured, then killed, some were dismembered and buried.

The killer couple was arrested at their home, 25 Cromwell Street, Gloucester, in 1994. Police, armed with a search warrant, dug up the remains of the Wests’ 16 year old daughter, Heather, who vanished in 1987. Further excavations under the house and in the garden produced eight more female bodies and a further body was found under the kitchen of a former home in Gloucester.

The Wests shared a fascination with BDSM. Police found pictures and tapes of Rose bound, gagged and whipped. They also found a wide variety of apparatus including gags, hoods, and huge dildos. Their victims were often abducted, then bound and gagged before being subjected to hideous torture over a period of days in their cellar.

Rosemary it seems loved to torture by the insertion of huge dildos and they both had a fascination with an exteme form of bondage and suffocation. When they went too far, as they often did, Fred would dismember and bury the bodies. Even their own children were abused, raped and tortured by this wicked couple, being used as guinea-pigs for their sexual experimentation. Rose would usually do the tying up, and the children would be tied naked and spread-eagled on a metal bedframe. One of the children said later ” She had canes and whips, including a cat of nine-tails. She might use all of them or just a selection. When she had completed her experiments on us she would encourage Dad to rape us or insert objects into us herself”. It was a standing joke amongst the children that one of them, Charmian, was buried in the garden under the patio that Fred had laid. This family joke eventually led police and social workers to discover the whole grisly truth.

Fred, aged 7

Fred West

Fred was born in 1941 in the village of Much Marcle, approximately 120 miles west of London, to Walter and Daisy West. It is believed that incest was an accepted part of the West household and Fred claimed that his father had sex with his daughters, using the logic, “I made you so I’m entitled to have you.”  Fred left school when he was fifteen, almost illiterate, and went to work as a farm hand.

Fred’s troubles with the police began in 1961 when he was fined for minor thefts in Hereford. A few months later, he was accused of impregnating a 13-year-old girl who was a friend of the West family. Fred was uncooperative and didn’t see that there was anything wrong with what he had done.

This attitude and the ensuing scandal caused a serious breach with his family. Fred was ordered to find somewhere else to live and it wasn’t long before he was caught stealing from the construction sites where he worked and having sex with young girls.

When Fred was seventeen, he had been seriously injured in a motorcycle accident. After his recovery from the accident, he met the pretty 16-year-old Catherine Bernadette Costello, nicknamed Rena. They were to marry 4 years later, in November 1962. By then Rena was pregnant by another man. Her daughter, Charmaine, was born in March 1963, and in July 1964 Rena bore Fred a daughter named Anne-Marie.

Even though Rena had been a prostitute at various times, she was not happy to be a prisoner to the voracious sexual appetite of Fred West. Colin Wilson in The Corpse Garden tells how Fred’s interest in “normal sex” was minimal. “He wanted oral sex, bondage and…sodomy…at all hours of the day and night.”

Anna McFall, first known victim

First Kill

Fred started a job driving an ice cream truck which afforded him unlimited access to many young women. For someone as highly sexed as Fred, it seemed like paradise. His politeness, apparent trustworthiness and sincerity, and his ability to spin interesting tales made him attractive to the teenagers who flocked around his ice cream truck. His continual seductions turned Rena and Charmaine into afterthoughts. One young girl he met was called Anna McFall
who, in early 1967, became pregnant with Fred’s child. She was trying unsuccessfully to get Fred to divorce Rena and marry her.

Fred’s response to the stress of her demands was to kill her and their unborn child,and then to slowly and methodically dismember her corpse and bury her along with the foetus. Oddly enough, he cut off her fingers and toes, which were missing from the gravesite. It would be his ritualistic signature in future crimes.

The following year Fred met Rose Letts, on November 29th, 1968, her fifteenth birthday.

Rose as a child

Rose

Rosemary Letts was born in November 1953 in Devon, England. Her father was a violent domestic tyrant who demanded unconditional obedience from his wife and children. He enjoyed disciplining them and seemed to look for any excuse to beat them.

.Rose was not a star performer in school and was known as ‘Dozy Rosie’. Also, she was overweight, which made her the butt of cruel jokes by her peers. She lashed out at them and attacked anyone who teased her. Consequently, she became known as an ill tempered, aggressive loner.

As a teenager, Rose showed signs of being sexually precocious, walking around naked after her baths and climbing into bed with her younger brother and fondling him sexually. Her father’s rules forbade her to date boys her own age and her heaviness and temperament kept boys from being interested in her. She focused her interest in sex on the older men of the village.

When she met Fred West there was an immediate sexual attraction but her father objected strongly to the relationship, and resorted to contacting Social Services and threatening West directly, but to no avail; she was soon pregnant with West’s child and found herself looking after his two children by Rena Costello, when West was sent to prison on various petty theft and fine evasion charges. She gave birth to daughter Heather in 1970. With three children to care for, a boyfriend in jail and constant money problems, Rose’s temper flared constantly. She resented having to take care of Rena’s children and treated them badly.

A Young Fred and Rose

Killing Together

After Heather’s birth, and shortly before Fred’s release, it appears that Rose killed Fred and Rena Costello’s daughter, Charmaine. Since Fred was in jail when Charmaine was murdered, his involvement probably extended to burying her body under the kitchen floor of their home on Midland Road where it lay undiscovered for over 20 years. Before he buried Charmaine, he took off her fingers, toes and kneecaps.

Rena Costello was killed in August 1971 by Fred West. Fred saw that he had no choice but to kill Rena. In all likelihood, he probably got her very drunk and then strangled her at his house on Midland Road. He then dismembered her body and mutilated it in the same odd way that he had Anna McFall’s body: he cut off Rena’s fingers and toes. Then he put her remains into bags and buried her in the same general area as he buried Anna McFall.

On 29 January 1972, Fred and Rosemary married in Gloucester, and on 1 June that year, Rose gave birth to their daughter, Mae. Like Fred, Rose came from a family where incest was considered normal and even after the birth of her fourth child Rose’s father, Bill Letts, with Fred’s approval, would often visit the West’s for sex with his daughter.

Charmaine (left), baby Heather and Anna Marie

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Rose’s magazine ad for prostitution

Torture, Rape, Incest and Murder

The Wests were both indulging their unconventional sexual appetites by this time, with Rose matching her husband in her extreme sexual needs. She had a voracious sexual appetite and enjoyed extreme bondage and sadomasochistic sex. She was bisexual, and many of their victims were picked up for both her and her husband’s sexual pleasure. West also worked as a prostitute (often while Fred watched).

Fred West himself had an almost insatiable appetite for bondage and violent sex acts on underage girls. He fitted out the cellar at No 25 as a torture chamber, and his 8-year-old daughter, Anne-Marie, became one of its first occupants, subjected to a horrifically brutal rape by her father whilst her stepmother held her down. This became a regular occurrence, and the child was threatened with beatings if she told anyone of her ordeal.

In December 1972 the Wests carried out a sexual assault on 17-year-old Caroline Owens whom they had hired as a nanny. Caroline was very attractive, so much so that Rose and Fred competed with each other to seduce her. When Caroline told them she was leaving the couple abducted, stripped and raped her. Caroline escaped and reported the couple to the police. As a result the Wests were fined for serious sexual assault in January of 1973.

Rose and Fred

Cellar of Death

Over the next five years eight young girls were lured to an horrific death in the Wests’ cellar. Lynda Gough, Lucy Partington, Juanita Mott, Therese Siegenthaler, Alison Chambers, Shirley Robinson and 15-year-old schoolgirls Carol Ann Cooper and Shirley Hubbard, all became victims of the West couple’s insatiable appetite for violent sex. After brutal sexual attacks, all were murdered, dismembered and buried in the cellar under No 25, having first had their fingers and toes removed.

Bondage was becoming a major thrill for Fred and Rose. Shirley’s head had been wrapped entirely with tape and a plastic tube was inserted in her nose so that she could breathe. Juanita had been subjected to even more extreme bondage and her body had been suspended from the beams of the cellar.At least one girl, Lucy Partington, was sexually abused for over a week before her death.

Rose continued to produce children at regular intervals and the birth of daughter Louise in November 1978, brought their offspring to six, although not all were fathered by West. Barry joined the brood in June 1980, with Rosemary Junior following in 1982 and Lucyanna in 1983. They were aware to some extent of the activities in the house, but West and Rose exercised strict control over them.

West’s incestuous interest in his own daughters continued, and when Anne-Marie moved out to live with her boyfriend, he switched his attentions to younger siblings, Heather and Mae. Heather resisted his attentions and, in 1986, committed the cardinal sin of telling a friend about the goings on in the house. The Wests responded by murdering and dismembering her, and burying her in the back garden of No 25, where son Stephen was forced to assist with digging the hole.

Justice Finally

Given that the West’s vicious sex acts did not result in murder every time, and the sheer number of attacks, it was inevitable that someone would expose their activities, which resulted in them coming to the attention of Detective Constable Hazel Savage, who led a search at Cromwell Street in August of 1992 that found pornography and clear evidence of child abuse. West was arrested for rape and sodomy of a minor, and Rose for assisting in the rape of a minor.

In the course of the investigation DC Savage uncovered the abuse of Anne-Marie, as well as the disappearances of Charmaine and Heather, that warranted further investigation, as well as rumours about what might be buried under the patio. The younger West children were taken into care, and Rose attempted suicide at this time, although she was found by her son, Stephen, and revived.

On 24th February 1994 a warrant was obtained to search the Cromwell Street house and garden, and police found the remains of two dismembered and decapitated young women, one of whom the police suspected might be Shirley Robinson. West claimed sole responsibility for the murders and, when Rose heard of the confession, she denied all knowledge of Heather’s death.

As the case against them developed, Rose tried increasingly to distance herself from West, claiming that she was also a victim, but police were not convinced of her innocence, given the sheer number of murders which had occurred, and her participation in the rapes.

On 13th December 1994, West was charged on twelve counts of murder, and he was taken into custody at Winson Green Prison in Birmingham, pending trial where, on 1st January 1995, he hanged himself in his cell with knotted bed sheets.

Rose West went on trial on 3rd October 1995 in the glare of media frenzy. Witnesses including her daughter Anne Marie and Caroline Owens, one of their first victims, testified to her participation in sexual assaults on young women. Her defence counsel tried to argue that evidence of assault was not evidence of murder but, when Rose testified on her own behalf, her violent nature and dishonesty became clear to the jury, and they unanimously found her guilty on ten separate counts of murder on 22nd November 1995. She was sentenced to a minimum of 25 years in jail. Rose West’s sentence was later extended to a “whole life” sentence by the Home Secretary, effectively removing any possibility of parole.

No 25 Cromwell Street, or the “House of Horrors”, as it was dubbed by the media, was eventually razed to the ground in October 1996, and in its place is a pathway that leads to the town centre.

There remains a widespread belief both with the public and within the police that Fred and Rose West’s victims numbered far more than the twelve with which they were charged and it is still considered highly likely that Fred West maintained another burial site yet to be discovered. And 12 women and children are definitely gone, forever, and two of their unborn babies, and we’ll never know how many more, simply listed as ‘missing’ during the Sixties and Seventies.

COULD THE NEW DIORAMA ARTIST ” GUV” BE THE NEW TRACEY EMIN OF THE ART WORLD ??….. YOU, AS VISITORS DECIDE

NEW FOR 2015………….. LITTLEDEAN JAIL MOVES  INTO THE REALMS OF CONTROVERSIAL  ART .

FOREST OF DEAN, GLOUCESTERSHIRE – DIORAMA ARTIST  “GUV” LATEST CREATION  “ASYLUM ” GOES ON DISPLAY AT THE CRIME THROUGH TIME COLLECTION, LITTLEDEAN BEFORE BEING SOLD BY A  MAJOR AUCTION HOUSE NEXT YEAR …. COMPLETE WITH CELL DOORS….. COULD THIS FETCH THE SAME KIND OF MONIES AS TRACEY EMIN’S WORLD FAMOUS TURNER PRIZE NOMINATED DIORAMA …. “MY BED” WHICH ORIGINALLY SOLD TO CHARLES SAATCHI FOR £150,000 AND LATER RESOLD BY HIM FOR A STAGGERING £2.5 MILLION IN 2014 ????

LITTLEDEAN JAIL IS A TRULY UNRIVALLED, POLITICALLY INCORRECT AND CONTROVERSIAL VISITOR ATTRACTION . IT IS AN EXCEPTIONALLY  UNIQUE ART GALLERY IN ITS OWN RIGHT , WITH FRAMED COLLAGES AND OTHER EXHIBITION ITEMS DISPLAYED FROM FLOOR TO CEILING THROUGHOUT .

IT  HOLDS THE WORLD RECORD (UNOFFICIAL) FOR THE MOST FRAMED COLLAGES ON DISPLAY IN ONE ESTABLISHMENT .THAT RUNS INTO SEVERAL THOUSANDS …

BELOW IS TRACEY EMIN’S WORLD FAMOUS DIORAMA ENTITLED “MY BED”

Emin-My-Bed

BELOW : WORLD FAMOUS ARTIST TRACEY EMIN

Artist-Tracey-Emin_2458281b

ABOUT TRACEY EMIN

Tracey Emin, CBE, RA (born 3 July 1963) is an English artist. She is part of the group known as Britartists or YBAs (Young British Artists).

In 1997, her work Everyone I Have Ever Slept With 1963–1995, a tent appliquéd with names, was shown at Charles Saatchi‘sSensation exhibition held at the Royal Academy in London. The same year, she gained considerable media exposure when she swore multiple times in an apparent state of drunkenness on a live discussion programme on British television.

In 1999, Emin had her first solo exhibition in the United States at Lehmann Maupin Gallery, entitled “Every Part of Me’s Bleeding”. Later that year, she was a Turner Prize nominee and exhibited My Bed — an installation, consisting of her own unmade dirty bed with used condoms and blood-stained underwear.

TRACEY EMIN  TALKS

BEING SOLD AT CHRISTIE’S FOR  CHARLES SAATCHI

saatchi

ICONIC FIGURES THAT DIED TOO YOUNG ….AMY WINEHOUSE …14 SEPTEMBER 1983 – 23 JULY 2011

HERE IS AN UPDATED BACKGROUND AND TRIBUTE TO THE ICONIC AND NOW TRAGICALLY DECEASED MUSIC ICON – AMY WINEHOUSE WHO DIED AT HOME IN CAMDEN , LONDON ON THE 23RD JULY 2011 AND WHOSE FUNERAL WAS ON THE 26TH JULY 2011 .

As we have long featured the sadly turbulent career and mass of tabloid sensationalism that has plagued her short life  here at the jail …….. here is some more interactive news report footage of her untimely death and soon after private funeral .

Here at the jail we have a great many personal signed photographs from Amy Winehouse pieced together in a now historical archive of montage displays , to include a great many tabloid extracts that have covered her life and success

Amy Jade Winehouse (14 September 1983 – 23 July 2011) was an English singer-songwriter known for her powerful contralto vocals[1] and her eclectic mix of musical genres including R&Bsoul and jazz.[2]

Winehouse’s 2003 debut album, Frank, was critically successful in the UK and was nominated for the Mercury Prize. Her 2006 follow-up album, Back to Black, led to six Grammy Award nominations and five wins, tying the then record for the most wins by a female artist in a single night, and made Winehouse the first British female to win five Grammys,[3][4] including three of the “Big Four“: Best New Artist, Record of the Year and Song of the Year. On 14 February 2007, she won a BRIT Award for Best British Female Artist; she had also been nominated for Best British Album. She won the Ivor Novello Award three times, one in 2004 for Best Contemporary Song (musically and lyrically) for “Stronger Than Me“, one in 2007 for Best Contemporary Song for “Rehab“, and one in 2008 for Best Song Musically and Lyrically for “Love Is a Losing Game“, among other distinctions. The album was the third biggest seller of the 2000s in the United Kingdom.[5]

Winehouse was credited as an influence in the rise in popularity of female musicians and soul music, and also for revitalising British music. Winehouse’s distinctive style made her a muse for fashion designers such as Karl Lagerfeld. Winehouse’s problems with drug and alcohol abuse, violence, and her self-destructive behaviours were regular tabloid news from 2007 until her death. She and her former husband, Blake Fielder-Civil, were plagued by legal troubles that left him serving prison time. In 2008, Winehouse faced a series of health complications that threatened both her career and her life.[6][7]

Winehouse died at the age of 27 on 23 July 2011, at her home in London;[8][9] police have said that the cause of her death is “as yet unexplained”.[10][11][12]


Winehouse was born in the Southgate area of north London to a Jewish family,[13] who were influential toward her interest in jazz.[14] Winehouse was the daughter of Mitchell Winehouse, a taxi driver, and Janis Winehouse (née Seaton), a pharmacist. She had one brother, Alex, who was four years older than her.[15] Mitchell often sang Frank Sinatra songs to young Amy, who also took to a constant habit of singing to the point that teachers found it difficult keeping her quiet in class.[16]
Early life

When Winehouse was nine years old, her grandmother, Cynthia, suggested she attend the Susi Earnshaw Theatre School for further training.[17] At age ten, Winehouse founded a short-lived rap group called Sweet ‘n’ Sour with childhood friend Juliette Ashby.[18] She stayed at the Earnshaw school for four years before seeking full time training at Sylvia Young Theatre School, but was allegedlyexpelled at 14 for “not applying herself” and for piercing her nose.[15][19] With other children from the Sylvia Young School, she appeared in an episode of The Fast Show in 1997.[20] She later attended The Mount School, Mill Hill[21] and then the BRIT School in SelhurstCroydon[22] and attended Southgate School and Ashmole School.[23][24]

Music career

Early career

After toying with her brother’s guitar, Winehouse received her first guitar when she was 13, and began writing music a year later. She began working soon after, including as a showbiz journalist for theWorld Entertainment News Network, in addition to singing with local group the Bolsha Band.[15][25] Her boyfriend at the time, soul singer Tyler James, sent her demo tape to an A&R person.[14]Winehouse signed to Simon Fuller‘s 19 Management in 2002. While being developed by the management company, the artist was kept an industry secret.[26] Her future A&R representative at Island/Universal, Darcus Beese, heard her by accident when the manager of The Lewinson Brothers showed him some productions of his clients on which Winehouse featured as vocalist. When he asked who the singer was the manager told him he was not allowed to say. Having decided that he wanted to sign her it took several months of asking around for Beese to eventually discover who the singer was. By this time Winehouse had already recorded a number of songs and signed a publishing deal with EMI. Through the publishers she formed a working relationship with the producer Salaam Remi.[26]

Beese introduced Winehouse to his boss, Nick Gatfield, and the Island head shared his enthusiasm in signing the young artist. Winehouse was signed to Island/Universal as rival interest in Winehouse had started to build, with representatives at EMI and Virgin also starting to make moves. Beese told HitQuarters that he felt the reason behind the excitement over an artist who was an atypical pop star for the time was due to a backlash against reality TV music shows with audiences becoming starved for genuine young talent.[26]

Winehouse’s greatest love was 1960s girl groups. She borrowed her “instantly recognisable” beehive hairdo (a weave[27]) and Cleopatra makeup from The Ronettes.[28]

Major label success and Frank

Performing at the Bowery Ballroom, New York City in 2007

Winehouse’s debut album, Frank, was released on 20 October 2003. Produced mainly by Salaam Remi, many songs were influenced by jazz and, apart from two covers, every song was co-written by Winehouse. The album received positive reviews[29][30] with compliments over the “cool, critical gaze” in its lyrics[2]and brought comparisons of her voice to Sarah Vaughan,[31] Macy Gray and others.[2]

The album entered the upper levels of the UK album chart in 2004 when it was nominated for BRIT Awards in the categories of “British Female Solo Artist” and “British Urban Act”. It went on to achieve platinum sales.[32] Later in 2004, she won the Ivor Novello (songwriting) Award for Best Contemporary Song, alongside Salaam Remi, with her contribution to the first single, “Stronger Than Me“.[33] The album also made the short list for the 2004 Mercury Music Prize. In the same year, she performed at the Glastonbury Festival, the V Festival, the Montreal International Jazz Festival (7 July 2004, at the Club Soda), and on the Jazzworld stage. After the release of the album, Winehouse commented that she was “only 80 percent behind [the] album” because of the inclusion by her record label of certain songs and mixes she disliked.[14]

International success and Back to Black

In contrast to her jazz-influenced former album, Winehouse’s focus shifted to the girl groups of the 1950s and 1960s. Winehouse hired New York singerSharon Jones‘s longtime band, the Dap-Kings to back her up in the studio and on tour.[34] In May 2006, Winehouse’s demonstration tracks such as “You Know I’m No Good” and “Rehab” appeared onMark Ronson‘s New York radio show on East Village Radio. These were some of the first new songs played on the radio after the release of “Pumps” and both were slated to appear on her second album. The 11-track album was produced entirely by Salaam Remi and Ronson, with the production credits being split between them. Ronson said in a 2010 interview that he liked working with Winehouse because she was blunt when she did not like his work.[35] Promotion of Back to Black soon began and, in early October 2006, Winehouse’s official website was relaunched with a new layout and clips of previously unreleased songs.[32] Back to Black was released in the UK on 30 October 2006. It went to number one on the UK Albums Chart numerous times, and entered at number seven on the Billboard 200 in the United States. It was the best-selling album in the UK in 2007, selling 1.85 million copies over the year.[36]

Play sound
21-second audio sample from Amy Winehouse’s first hit

Play sound
25-second audio sample from one of the standout tracks on “Back to Black” album

Play sound
Originally performed by The Shirelles in the 1960s, this version slows the tempo down and features a jazz arrangement.

Problems listening to these files? See media help.

The album spawned a number of singles. The first single released from the album was the Ronson-produced “Rehab”. The song reached the top ten in the UK and the US.[37] Time magazine named “Rehab” the Best Song of 2007. Writer Josh Tyrangiel praised Winehouse for her confidence, saying, “What she is is mouthy, funny, sultry, and quite possibly crazy” and “It’s impossible not to be seduced by her originality. Combine it with production by Mark Ronson that references four decades worth of soul music without once ripping it off, and you’ve got the best song of 2007.”[38] The album’s second single and lead single in the US, “You Know I’m No Good”, was released in January 2007 with a remixfeaturing rap vocals by Ghostface Killah. It ultimately reached number 18 on the UK singles chart. The title track, “Back to Black“, was released in the UK in April 2007 and peaked at number 25, but was more successful across mainland Europe.[39] “Tears Dry on Their Own“, “Love Is a Losing Game” and “Just Friends” were also released as singles, but failed to achieve the same level of success.[40]

A deluxe edition of Back to Black was also released on 5 November 2007 in the UK. The bonus disc features B-sides, rare, and live tracks, as well as “Valerie”. Winehouse’s debut DVD I Told You I Was Trouble: Live in London was released the same day in the UK and 13 November in the US. It includes a live set recorded at London’s Shepherds Bush Empire and a 50-minute documentary charting the singer’s career over the previous four years.[41] Frank was released in the United States on 20 November 2007 to positive reviews.[42][43] The album debuted at number 61 on the Billboard 200 chart.[44]

In addition to her own album, she collaborated with other artists on singles. Winehouse was a vocalist on the song “Valerie” on Ronson’s solo album Version. The song peaked at number two in the UK, upon its October single release. The song was nominated for a 2008 Brit Award for “Best British Single”.[45][46][47] Her work with ex-Sugababe Mutya Buena, “B Boy Baby“, was released on 17 December 2007. It served as the fourth single from Buena’s solo debut album, Real Girl.[48]

Continued success and acclaim

Winehouse performing at Eurockéennesin 2007

By year’s end, Winehouse had garnered numerous accolades and awards. The singer won 2008 Grammy Awards in the categories of Record of the Year,Song of the Year, and Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for the single “Rehab”, while her album Back to Black was nominated for Album of the Year and won the Best Pop Vocal Album award.[49][50] Producer Mark Ronson’s work with her won the award in the Grammy Award for Producer of the Year, Non-Classical category.[51] The singer also earned a Grammy in the Best New Artist category. This earned Winehouse an entry in the 2009 edition of theGuinness Book of World Records for Most Grammy Awards won by a British Female Act.[52] She performed “You Know I’m No Good” and “Rehab” at the awards ceremony via satellite, as her visa approval came through too late for her to travel to the US. She said “This is for London because Camden town is burning down”, in reference to the Camden Market fire.[53] After the Grammy Awards, album sales increased catapulting Back to Black to number two on the U.S. Billboard 200 after initially peaking at number seven.[54] On 13 January 2008, Back to Black held the number one position on the Billboard Pan European charts for the third straight week.[55] In January 2008, Universal Music International said it believed that there was a correlation between number of albums sold and the extensive media coverage the singer had received.[56]

Performing at Eurockéennes in Belfort, Territoire de Belfort, France on 29 June 2007

A special deluxe edition of Back to Black topped the UK album charts on 2 March 2008. The original edition of the album resided at the number 30 position, in its 68th week on the charts, while “Frank” charted at number 35.[57] By 12 March, the album had sold a total of 2,467,575 copies, 318,350 of those in the previous 10 weeks, putting the album on the UK’s top 10 best-selling albums of the 21st century for the first time.[58] On 7 April, Back to Black was residing at the top position on the pan-European charts for the sixth consecutive and thirteenth aggregate week.[59]Back to Black was the world’s seventh biggest selling album for 2008.[60] These sales helped keep Universal Music’s recorded music division from dropping to levels experienced by the overall music market.[61]

At the 2008 Ivor Novello Awards, Winehouse became the first artist to receive two nominations for the top award, best song, musically and lyrically. She won the award for “Love Is a Losing Game” and was nominated for “You Know I’m No Good”.[62] “Rehab”, a Novello winner for best contemporary song in 2006, also received a 2008 nomination for best-selling British song.[63] Winehouse was nominated for a MTV Europe Award in the Act of The Year category.[64]Amy Winehouse – The Girl Done Good: A Documentary Review, a 78-minute DVD, was released on 14 April 2008. The documentary features interviews with those who knew her at a young age, helped her gain success, jazz music experts, as well as music and pop culture specialists.[65][66] A clip of Winehouse’s music is included in the “Roots and Influences” area that looks at connections between different artists at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Annex NYC, which opened in December 2008. One thread starts with Billie Holiday continues with Aretha FranklinMary J. Blige and finishes with Winehouse.[67] In a poll of United States residents conducted for VisitBritain by Harris Interactive that was released in March 2009, one fifth of those polled indicated they had listened to Winehouse’s music during the previous year.[68] Winehouse performed with Rhythms del Mundo on their cover of the Sam Cooke song “Cupid” for an Artists Project Earth benefit album that was released on 13 July 2009.[69][70]

Final projects

Winehouse and Mark Ronson contributed a cover of Lesley Gore‘s “It’s My Party” to the Quincy Jones tribute album Q Soul Bossa Nostra released 9 November 2010.[71] Winehouse and drummer?uestlove of the Roots had agreed to form a group. Winehouse’s problems obtaining a visa delayed the still unnamed group from working together. Producer Salaam Remi has already created some material with Winehouse as part of the project.[72] According to a newspaper report, Universal Music pressed her regarding new material in 2008. According to that same report Winehouse as of 2 September had not been near a recording studio. It was noted that she had touring obligations during the summer and also that if an album was quickly recorded, it would be at least a year before an album could be released.[61] In late October, Winehouse’s spokesman was quoted as saying that Winehouse had not been given a deadline to complete her third album, for which she was learning to play drums.[73]

During her 2009 stay in Saint Lucia, Winehouse worked on new music with producer Salaam RemiIsland claimed that a new album would be due in 2010; Island co-president Darcus Beese said, “I’ve heard a couple of song demos that have absolutely floored me”.[74] In July 2010 Winehouse was quoted as saying her next album would be released no later than January 2011, saying “It’s going to be very much the same as my second album, where there’s a lot of jukebox stuff and songs that are… just jukebox, really.” Mark Ronson said in July 2010 that he had not started to record the album.[75]

American singer Tony Bennett recorded a song with Winehouse for his forthcoming album, Duets II, which is scheduled for release on 20 September 2011 (almost two months after her death).[76]

Artistry

Music and voice

Wiki letter w cropped.svg This section requires expansion.

Influence on the music industry

British singer Adele had credited Winehouse’s success in the United States for making her and fellow British singer Duffy’s journey to the United States “a bit smoother”.[77] American singer Lady Gagacredited Winehouse with paving the way for her rise to the top of the charts. She appeared to be using a metaphorical analogy to explain that Winehouse made it easier for unconventional women to have mainstream pop success.[78] The “Winehouse phenomenon” has been credited by Sebastian Danchin, author of Encyclopedia of Rhythm & Blues and Soul, of kick-starting a revival of soul music that has been ongoing since 2000. Danchin quoting Raphael SaadiqAnthony Hamilton, and John Legend said “Amy Winehouse was produced by people who wanted to create a marketing coup. The positive side is that it reacquainted an audience with this music and played an introductory role for others. This reinvigorated the genre by overcoming the vintage aspect”.[79]

The release of Back to Black and the emergence of Lily Allen has been credited by The Sunday Times as directly creating the market for the media proclaimed “the year of the women” in 2009 which has seen five female artists nominated for the Mercury Prize. After the album was released record companies sought out female artists with a similar sound and fearless and experimental female musicians in general. Adele and Duffy were the second wave of artists with a sound similar to Winehouse’s. A third wave of female musicians that has emerged since the album was released are led byVV BrownFlorence and the MachineLa Roux and Little Boots.[80] In February 2010, rapper Jay-Z credited Winehouse with revitalising British music, saying, “There’s a strong push coming out of London right now, which is great. It’s been coming ever since I guess Amy (Winehouse). I mean always, but I think Amy, this resurgence was ushered in by Amy.”[81] In March 2011 the New York Daily News ran an article attributing the continuing wave of British female artists that have been successful in the United States to Winehouse and her absence. Spin magazine music editor Charles Aaron was quoted as saying “Amy Winehouse was the Nirvana moment for all these women,” “They can all be traced back to her in terms of attitude, musical styles or fashion”. According to Keith Caulfield chart manager for Billboard “Because of Amy, or the lack thereof, the marketplace was able to get singers like Adele and Duffy,” “Now those ladies have brought on the new ones, like Eliza Doolittle,Rumer and Ellie.”[82]

Live performances

Amy Winehouse with her band backstage, March 16, 2009

Winehouse toured in conjunction with the Back to Black album’s release. She performed headlining gigs in September and November 2006, including one of the Little Noise Sessions charity concerts at the Union ChapelIslington. On 31 December 2006, Winehouse appeared on Jools Holland‘s Annual Hootenannyand performed a cover of Marvin Gaye‘s “I Heard It Through the Grapevine” along with Paul Weller and Holland’s Rhythm and Blues Orchestra. She also performed Toots & the Maytals‘ “Monkey Man”. She began a run of another 14 gigs beginning in February 2007. At his request, Bruce Willis introduced Winehouse before her performance of “Rehab” at the 2007 MTV Movie Awards. Winehouse made awards organizers nervous when she went on a Las Vegasjaunt in the hours before the show.[83] During the summer of 2007, Winehouse performed at various festivals, including UK’s Glastonbury Festival,[84]Chicago’s Lollapalooza festival, Rock Werchter and Baltimore‘s Virgin Music Festival.

Winehouse’s tour, however, did not go as well. In November 2007, the opening night of a 17-date tour was marred by booing and walkouts at the National Indoor Arena in Birmingham. A music critic for the Birmingham Mail said it was “one of the saddest nights of my life…I saw a supremely talented artist reduced to tears, stumbling around the stage and, unforgivably, swearing at the audience.”[85] Other concerts ended similarly, with, for example, fans at herHammersmith Apollo performance saying that she “looked highly intoxicated throughout”,[86] until she announced on 27 November 2007, that her performances and public appearances were cancelled for the remainder of 2007, citing doctor advice to take a complete rest. A statement issued by concert promoter Live Nation blamed “the rigours involved in touring and the intense emotional strain that Amy has been under in recent weeks” for the decision.[87]

On 20 February 2008, Winehouse performed at the 2008 BRIT Awards, performing “Valerie” with Mark Ronson, followed by “Love Is a Losing Game”. She urged the crowd to “make some noise for my Blake.”[88] In Paris, she performed what was described as a “well-executed 40 minute” set at the opening of a Fendi boutique.[89] Although her father, manager and various members of her touring team reportedly tried to dissuade her, Winehouse performed at the Rock in Rio Lisboa festival in Portugal in May 2008.[17] Although the set was plagued by a late arrival and problems with her voice, the crowd warmed to her. In addition to her own material she performed two Specials covers.[90] Winehouse performed at Nelson Mandela’s 90th Birthday Party concert at London’s Hyde Park on the 27 June,[91] and the next day at the Glastonbury Festival.[92] On 12 July at the Oxegen Festival she performed a well-received 50 minute set[93] which was followed the next day by a 14 song set at T in the Park.[94] On 16 August she played at the Staffordshire leg of the V Festival, and the following day played the Chelmsford leg of the festival. Organizers said that Winehouse attracted the biggest crowds of the festival. Audience reaction was reported as mixed.[95] On 6 September she was the headliner at ‘Bestival‘. She performed what was described as a polished set which ended with her storming off the stage. Her hour late arrival caused her set to be cut off at the halfway point due to a curfew.[96]

In May 2009, Winehouse returned to performing at a jazz festival in Saint Lucia amid torrential downpours and technical difficulties. During her hour long set it was reported she was unsteady on her feet and had trouble remembering lyrics. She apologised to the crowd for being “bored” and ended her set by walking off the stage in the middle of a song.[97][98] To a cheering crowd on 23 August at the V festival, Winehouse sang with The Specials on their songs “You’re Wondering Now” and “Ghost Town“.[99]

In July 2010, she performed “Valerie” with Mark Ronson at a movie premiere. She sang lead but forgot some of the song’s lyrics.[75] In October Winehouse performed a four song set to promote her fashion line. In December 2010 Winehouse played a 40 minute concert at a Russian oligarch‘s party in Moscow. Guests included other Russian tycoons and Russian show business stars. The tycoon hand picked the songs she played.[100]

During January 2011, she played five dates in Brazil, with opening acts of Janelle Monáe and Mayer Hawthorne.[101][102] On 11 February 2011, Winehouse cut short a performance in Dubai following booing from the audience. Winehouse was reported to be tired, distracted and “tipsy” during the performance.[103]

On 18 June 2011, Winehouse started her 12-leg 2011 European tour in Belgrade. Local media described her performance as a scandal and disaster, and she was booed off the stage due to her apparently being too drunk to perform. It was reported that she was unable to remember the city she was in, the lyrics of her songs or – when trying to introduce them – the names of the members of her band.[104][105] The local press also claimed that Winehouse was forced to perform by her bodyguards, who didn’t allow her to leave the stage when she tried to do so.[106] She then pulled out of performances in Istanbul and Athens which had been scheduled for the following week.[107] On 21 June it was announced that she had cancelled all shows of her European tour and would be given “as long as it takes” to sort herself out.[108]

Winehouse’s last public appearance took place at Camden’s Roundhouse, London on 20 July 2011, when she made a surprise guest appearance on stage to support her goddaughter, Dionne Bromfield, who was singing “Mama Said” with The Wanted.[109]

Club nights

On 10 July 2008, Winehouse launched her own club night, Snakehips at the Monarch, in the Camden Monarch venue in London. Although billed as a DJ battle between her and another DJ, she stayed behind the decks swaying as another person actually played 1960s music.[110] She appeared at another Snakehips event at the Monarch on the night of 11 September. After reportedly arriving two hours late she spun music and played a short acoustic set.[111]

Other ventures

Winehouse joined a campaign to stop a block of flats being built beside the George Tavern, a famous London East End music venue. Campaign supporters feared the residential development would end the spot’s lucrative sideline as a film and photo location, on which it relies to survive.[112] As part of a breast cancer awareness campaign, Winehouse appeared in a revealing photograph for the April 2008 issue of Easy Living magazine.[113] Winehouse had an estimated £10m fortune, tying her for tenth place in the 2008 Sunday Times listing of the wealth of musicians under age 30.[114] The following year her fortune had dropped to an estimated £5m.[115] Her finances are run by Mitch and Janis Winehouse.[116] It was reported she earned about £1m singing at two private parties duringParis Fashion Week.[117] as well as another £1m to perform at a Moscow Art Gallery for Russian oligarch Roman Abramovich.[118] Winehouse loaned a vintage dress used in her video for “Tears Dry on Their Own” as well as a DVD to the British Music Experience, a new museum dedicated to the history of British pop music.[119] The museum, located in The O2, opened on 9 March 2009.[120][121]

In January 2009 Winehouse announced that she was launching her own record label. The first act on her Lioness Records is Winehouse’s 13-year-old goddaughter, Dionne Bromfield. Her first album, featuring covers of classic soul records, was released on 12 October 2009.[122] Winehouse is the backing singer on several tracks on the album and she performed backing vocals for Bromfield on the television programme Strictly Come Dancing on 10 October.[123]

Winehouse and her family are the subject of a 2009 documentary shot by Daphne Barak titled Saving Amy.[124]

Winehouse entered into a joint venture in 2009 with EMI to launch a range of wrapping paper and gift cards containing song lyrics from her album Back to Black.[125]

On 8 January 2010 a television documentary, My Daughter Amy, aired on Channel 4.[126]

Saving Amy was released as a paperback book in January 2010.[127]

Winehouse has collaborated on a 17 piece fashion collection with the Fred Perry label. It was released for sale in October 2010. According to Fred Perry’s marketing director “We had three major design meetings where she was closely involved in product style selection and the application of fabric, colour and styling details,” and gave “crucial input on proportion, colour and fit”. The collection consists of “vintage-inspired looks including Capri pants, a bowling dress, a trench coatpencil skirts, a longline argyle sweater and a pink-and-black checkerboard-printed collared shirt”.[128][129]

Personal life

With the paparazzi taking photographs of her wherever they could, Winehouse obtained an injunction against a leading paparazzi agency under the Protection from Harassment Act 1997, the resultant court order banning them from following her.[130] Photographers were also banned from following her within 100 metres of her home and photographing Winehouse in her home or the home of her friends and family. According to a newspaper report, sources close to the singer said legal action was taken out of concern for the safety of Winehouse and those close to her.[130]

Relationships

She married on-off boyfriend Blake Fielder-Civil (born August 1978), a former video production assistant,[131][132] on 18 May 2007, in Miami, Florida. Fielder-Civil was a “dropout” of Bourne Grammar School, who moved to London at aged 16 from his native Lincolnshire.[17] In a June 2007 interview, Winehouse admitted she was sometimes violent towards him when she had been drinking, stating “if he says one thing I don’t like then I’ll chin him”.[133] In August 2007, they were photographed, bloodied and bruised, in the streets of London after an alleged fight, although she contended her injuries were self-inflicted.[134] Equality campaigner Glenn Sacks criticised Winehouse for “bragging” about abusing her husband, noting how a male abuser would have been “locked up, stigmatised, and vilified”.[135]

Winehouse’s parents and in-laws publicly reported their numerous concerns, citing fears that the two might commit suicide, with Fielder-Civil’s father encouraging fans to boycott her music.[136] Fielder-Civil was quoted in a British tabloid as saying he introduced her to crack cocaine and heroin.[137] During a visit with Mitch Winehouse at the prison in July 2008, Fielder-Civil reportedly said that they would cut themselves to ease the pain of withdrawal.[17]

From 21 July 2008 to 25 February 2009, Fielder-Civil was imprisoned following his guilty plea on charges of trying to pervert the course of justice as well as a charge of grievous bodily harm with intent.[138][139][140] The incident, in July 2007, involved an assault on a pub landlord that resulted in a broken cheek.[141] According to the prosecution the landlord accepted £200,000 as part of a deal to “effectively throw the [court] case and not turn up”. The prosecution testified that the money used to pay off the landlord belonged to Winehouse,[142] but that Winehouse pulled out of a meeting with the men involved in the plot, because she had to attend an awards ceremony.[143]

Winehouse was spotted with aspiring actor Josh Bowman on holiday in Saint Lucia in early January 2009, saying she was “in love again, and I don’t need drugs.”[144] She commented that the “whole marriage was based on doing drugs” and that “for the time being I’ve just forgotten I’m even married.”[144] On 12 January, Winehouse’s spokesman confirmed that “papers have been received” for what Fielder-Civil’s solicitor has said are divorce proceedings based on a claim of adultery.[145][146] On 25 February, Blake Fielder-Civil was quoted as saying that he planned to continue divorce proceedings to give himself a drug-free fresh start.[140] In March, Winehouse was quoted in a magazine as saying, “I still love Blake and I want him to move into my new house with me – that was my plan all along … I won’t let him divorce me. He’s the male version of me and we’re perfect for each other.”[147] Uncontested,[148] the divorce was granted on 16 July 2009 and became final on 28 August 2009.[148]Upon his request Fielder-Civil received no money in the settlement.[149] She is believed to have been dating director Reg Traviss shortly before her death.[150]

Substance abuse and mental health issues

Winehouse’s battles with substance abuse were the subject of much media attention. In various interviews, she admitted to having problems with self-harm, depression and eating disorders.[15][151] In 2005, she went through a period of drinking, heavy drug use, violent mood swings and weight loss.[17] People who saw her during the end of that year and early 2006 reported a rebound that coincided with the writing of Back to Black.[17] Her family believes that the mid-2006 death of her grandmother, who was a stabilising influence, set her off into addiction.[17] In August 2007, Winehouse cancelled a number of shows in the UK and Europe, citing exhaustion and ill health. She was hospitalised during this period for what was reported as an overdose of heroin, ecstasy, cocaine, ketamine and alcohol.[152]

Winehouse told a magazine that the drugs were to blame for her hospitalisation and that “I really thought that it was over for me then.”[153] Soon after, Winehouse’s father commented that when he had made public statements regarding her problems, he was using the media because it seemed the only way to get through to her.[154] In an interview with The Album Chart Show on British television, Winehouse said she was manic depressive and not alcoholic, adding that that sounded like “an alcoholic in denial”.[155]

On 2 December 2007, images of the singer outside her home in the early morning hours, barefoot and wearing only a bra and jeans, appeared on the internet and in tabloid newspapers. In a statement, her spokesman blamed paparazzi harassment for the incident.[156] The spokesman reported that the singer was in a physician-supervised programme and was channelling her difficulties by writing a lot of music.[157] The British tabloid The Sun posted a video of a woman, alleged to be Winehouse, apparently smoking crack cocaine and speaking of having taken ecstasy and valium. Winehouse’s father moved in with her,[158] and Island Records, her record label, announced the abandonment of plans for an American promotion campaign on her behalf.[159] In late January 2008, Winehouse reportedly entered a rehabilitation facility for a two-week treatment program.[160]

On 23 January 2008, the video was passed on to the Metropolitan Police,[159] who questioned her on 5 February.[161] No charges were brought. On 26 March 2008, Winehouse’s spokesman said she was “doing well” and denied a published report in a British tabloid that consideration was being given to having her return to rehab.[162] Her record company reportedly believed that her recovery remained fragile.[163] By late April 2008, her erratic behaviour, including an allegation of assault, caused fear that her drug rehabilitation efforts have been unsuccessful,[164] leading to efforts by Winehouse’s father and manager to seek assistance in having her sectioned.[165] Her dishevelled appearance during and after a scheduled club night in September sparked new rumours of a relapse. Photographers were quoted as saying she appeared to have cuts on her legs and arms.[111]

In an interview released in June 2009 Winehouse’s father said the singer was in a drug replacement programme. He said she was gradually recovering but that heavy drinking was causing “slight backward steps”. A documentary shot early in 2009 shows Winehouse apparently intoxicated according to a newspaper report.[166] Pictures published by a magazine in July 2009 upon her return to the United Kingdom from her extended stay in Saint Lucia appeared to show that Winehouse had gained weight and that her complexion was improved.[167] In an October 2010 interview Winehouse said she had been drug-free for three years, saying “I literally woke up one day and was like, ‘I don’t want to do this any more.’”[168]

Winehouse entered the Priory Clinic on 25 May 2011, where she stayed for one week.[169]

Violence and legal difficulties

in 2006 Winehouse admitted punching a fan in the face for criticising taking Blake Fielder-Civil as a husband. She then attacked her spouse as he attempted to calm her down, kneeing him in the crotch.[170]

In October 2007, Winehouse and her then-husband were arrested in Bergen, Norway for possession of seven grams of marijuana. The couple were later released and fined 3850 kroner (around £350).[171] Winehouse first appealed the fines, claiming she was “duped” into confessing,[171][172] but later dropped the appeal.[173]

On 26 April 2008, Winehouse was cautioned after she admitted to police she slapped a 38 year old man in the face, a “common assault” offence. She voluntarily turned herself in and was held overnight. Police said, at her arrival she was “in no fit state” to be interviewed.[174] Winehouse was arrested on 7 May 2008 on suspicion of possessing drugs after a video of her apparently smoking crack cocaine was passed to the police in January,[175] but was released on bail a few hours later because they could not confirm, from the video, what she was smoking.[152][176] The Crown Prosecution Service considered charging her with possessing a controlled drug and allowing her premises to be used for the supply by others of a controlled drug, but she was cleared when the service could not establish that the substance in the video was a controlled drug.[177] In reaction to the decision, former police commander John O’Connor said it is an “absolute scandal that nothing could be done” about Winehouse “cocking a snook at the law”.[178] Some members of Parliament also reacted negatively.[178][179] Two London residents were subsequently charged with conspiracy to supply cocaine and ecstasy to Winehouse.[180] One of the pair was sentenced to two years in prison on 13 December 2008, while the other received a two-year community order.[181]

On 5 March 2009, Winehouse was arrested and charged with common assault following a claim by a woman that Winehouse hit her in the eye at a September 2008 Prince’s Trust charity ball.[182] At the same time, she was reported to have spat at the English socialite Pippa Middleton and to have headbutted a photographer.[183] Winehouse’s spokesperson announced the singer cancelled a scheduled United States Coachella Festival appearance in “light of current legal issues”.[184] Swearing in under her legal name of Amy Jade Civil, Winehouse appeared in court on 17 March to enter her plea of not guilty.[185] On 23 July her assault trial began with prosecutor Lyall Thompson charging that Winehouse acted with “deliberate and unjustifiable violence” while appearing to be under the influence of alcohol or another substance. The woman, Sharene Flash, testified that Winehouse “punched me forcefully in my right eye. She used a fist, her right one.” Winehouse testified that she did not punch Flash, but tried to push Flash away from her because she was scared of Flash. Winehouse cited her worry that Flash would sell her story to a tabloid, Flash’s height advantage, and Flash’s “rude” behaviour as reasons for her fear of Flash.[186][187] On the 24 July, District Judge Timothy Workman ruled that Winehouse was not guilty of the charge. Workman cited the facts that all but two of the witnesses were intoxicated at the time of the incident and that medical evidence did not show “the sort of injury that often occurs when there is a forceful punch to the eye”.[188]

On 19 December 2009, Winehouse was arrested again on charges of common assault, plus another charge of public order offence. Winehouse assaulted the front-of-house manager of the Milton Keynes Theatre after he asked her to move from her seat.[189] On 20 January 2010, she admitted common assault and disorderly behaviour. She was given a two-year conditional discharge and ordered to pay £85 court costs and £100 compensation to the man she attacked.[190]

Respiratory problems

On 23 June 2008, Winehouse’s publicist corrected earlier misstatements by Mitch Winehouse that his daughter had early stage emphysema, instead claiming she had signs of what could lead to early-stage emphysema.[7] Mitch Winehouse had also stated that his daughter’s lungs were operating at 70 percent capacity and that she had an irregular heartbeat. Mitch Winehouse said that these problems had been caused by her chain smoking and crack cocaine use. The singer’s father also reported that doctors had warned Winehouse that, if she continued smoking crack cocaine, she would have to wear an oxygen mask and would eventually die.[191] In a radio interview, Mitch Winehouse said the singer was responding “fabulously” to treatment, which included being covered with nicotine patches.[192] British Lung Foundation spokesman Keith Prowse noted this type of condition could be managed with treatment. Prowse also said the condition was not normal for a person her age but “heavy smoking and inhaling other substances like drugs can age the lungs prematurely”.[193] Norman H. Edelman of the American Lung Association explained that if she stopped smoking, her lung functions would decline at the rate of a normal person, but continued smoking would lead to a more rapid decline in lung function.[194] Photographs of the singer with a cigarette in her mouth, taken 23 June 2008, were widely published.[195]

Winehouse was released from The London Clinic 24 hours after returning from a temporary leave to perform at Nelson Mandela‘s 90th birthday and at a concert in Glastonbury, and continued receiving treatment as an outpatient.[196] In July, 2008 Winehouse stated that she had been diagnosed with “some areas of emphysema” and said she is getting herself together by “eating loads of healthy food, sleeping loads, playing my guitar, making music and writing letters to my husband every day”.[197] She also kept a vertical tanning bed in her apartment.[27] Winehouse began precautionary testing on her lungs and chest on 25 October 2008[198] at the London Clinic for what was reported as a chest infection. Winehouse was in and out of the facility and was granted permission to set her own schedule regarding home leave.[73] She returned to the hospital on 23 November 2008 for a reported reaction to her medication.[199]

Death

Tributes outside Amy Winehouse’s home at Camden Square on the evening of her death on 23 July 2011

At 3:54 pm BST (15:54 UTC+1) on 23 July 2011, two ambulances were called to Winehouse’s home in Camden, London.[200] Winehouse had been found by a member of her security team[201] and was pronounced dead at the scene. Shortly afterwards, the Metropolitan Police confirmed that she had died.[202][203] A post mortem with inconclusive results was completed on 25 July, and no cause of death could be established.[204] An inquest was adjourned to 26 October, and results of further toxicology tests will take two to four weeks.[201][204] A private funeral was planned for Tuesday for friends and family.[205] After her death was announced, media and camera crews appeared as crowds gathered near Winehouse’s residence to pay their respects. Forensic investigators entered the flat as police cordoned off the street outside.

Winehouse’s record label, Universal Republic, released a statement that read in part: “We are deeply saddened at the sudden loss of such a gifted musician, artist and performer.”[206][207]

Controversy

Winehouse’s dichotomous public image of critical and commercial success versus personal turmoil proved to be controversial. The New Statesman magazine called Winehouse “a filthy-mouthed, down-to-earth diva,”[208] while Newsweek magazine called her “a perfect storm of sex kitten, raw talent and poor impulse control.”[209] Karen Heller with The Philadelphia Inquirer summarised the maelstrom this way:

She’s only 24 with six Grammy nods, crashing headfirst into success and despair, with a codependent husband in jail, exhibitionist parents with questionable judgement, and the paparazzi documenting her emotional and physical distress. Meanwhile, a haute designer Karl Lagerfeld appropriates her dishevelled style and eating issues to market to the elite while proclaiming her the new Bardot.[210]

By 2008, her continued drug problems threatened her career. Even as Nick Gatfield, the president of Island Records, toyed with the idea of releasing Winehouse “to deal with her problems”, he remarked on her talent, saying, “It’s a reflection of her status [in the U.S.] that when you flick through the TV coverage [of the Grammys] it’s her image they use.”[159] Post-Grammys, some questioned whether Winehouse should have been honoured with the awards given her recent personal and drug problems,[211][212][213] including Natalie Cole, who introduced Winehouse at the ceremony. Cole (who battled her own substance-abuse problems while winning a Grammy for Best New Artist in 1975[214]) remarked, “I think the girl is talented, gifted, but it’s not right for her to be able to have her cake and eat it too. She needs to get herself together.”[214] In an opinion newspaper commentary, Antonio Maria Costa, executive director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, said that the alleged drug habits of Winehouse and other celebrities send a bad message “to others who are vulnerable to addiction” and undermine the efforts of other celebrities trying to raise awareness of problems in Africa, now that more cocaine used in Europe passes through Africa.[215] Winehouse’s spokesperson called Costa a “ludicrous man” and noted that “Amy has never given a quote about drugs or flaunted it in any way. She’s had some problems and is trying to get better. The U.N. should get its own house in order.”[216] Graeme Pearson, the former head of Scotland’s drug enforcement agency, criticised Winehouse and Kate Moss for making going to rehab a badge of honour, thus giving the false impression that quitting drugs is easy, because many cannot afford to go to clinics.[217]

Winehouse became a staple in popularity polls. The 2008 NME Awards nominated Winehouse in the categories of “Villain of the Year”, “Best Solo Artist”, and “Best Music DVD”; Winehouse won for “Worst Dressed Performer”.[218][219] In its third annual list, Glamour magazine named Winehouse the third worst dressed British Woman.[220] Winehouse was ranked number two on Richard Blackwell’s 48th annual “Ten Worst Dressed Women” list, behind Victoria Beckham.[221] In an April 2008 poll conducted by Sky News, Winehouse was named the second greatest “ultimate heroine” by the UK population at large, topping the voting for that category of those polled under 25 years old.[222] Psychologist Donna Dawson commented that the results demonstrate women like Winehouse who have “a certain sense of vulnerability or have had to fight against some adversity in their lives” receive recognition.[222] Winehouse was voted the second most hated personality in the United Kingdom in a poll conducted one month later by Marketing magazine.[223]

June 2008 brought a report that Winehouse, singing a disparaging chant about blacks, the disabled, and homosexuals, and containing racial epithets about Pakistanis and Indians, was taped by her former husband Fielder-Civil, despite assurances to her that he was not filming.[224] Winehouse denied allegations that she was a racist, saying “I don’t want to play anything down, but I’m the leastracist person going.”[224] Winehouse added that the film was taken during “really, really happy times.”[224] Speaking at a discussion entitled Winehouse or White House?: Do we go too big on showbiz news? Jeff Zycinski, head of BBC Radio Scotland, said the BBC and media in general were complicit in the destruction of celebrities like Winehouse. He said that public interest in the singer’s lifestyle does not make her lifestyle newsworthy. Rod McKenzie editor of the BBC Radio One program Newsbeat replied that “If you play [Amy Winehouse’s] music to a certain demographic, those same people want to know what’s happening in her private life. If you don’t cover it, you’re insulting young license fee payers.”[225] British singer and songwriter Lily Allen was quoted in a Scottish newspaper as saying

I know Amy Winehouse very well. And she is very different to what people portray her as being. Yes, she does get out of her mind on drugs sometimes, but she is also a very clever, intelligent, witty, funny person who can hold it together. You just don’t see that side.[226]

Artistic impressions

London’s Mall Galleries opened an exhibition in May 2008 that included a sculpture of Winehouse, entitled Excess. The piece, created by Guy Portelli, had a miniature of the singer lying on top of acracked champagne bottle, with a pool of spilled liquid underneath. The body was covered with what appeared to be tiny pills, while one outstretched hand held a glass.[227] Another piece, a print entitled “Celebrity 1” by artist Charlotte Suckling, was exhibited in the same exhibition.[227] A wax sculpture of Winehouse went on display at the London Madame Tussauds on 23 July 2008. The singer did not attend the unveiling, although her parents did.[228] A sculpture by Marco Perego, entitled “The Only Good Rock Star Is a Dead Rock Star”, that depicts Winehouse lying in a pool of blood with an apple and a bullet hole in her head after being shot by American novelist and beat poet William S. Burroughs (in a recreation of the accidental killing of his wife Joan Vollmer),[229] was scheduled to go on display in New York’s Half Gallery on 14 November 2008. The sale price for the sculpture is listed at US $100,000. Perego said of the sculpture “Rock stars are the sacrificial animals of society.” Winehouse’s spokesperson said “It’s a funny kind of tribute. The artist seems in thrall to a tabloid persona that is not the real Amy. People often use her image to sell their work.”[229]

Winehouse attracted a number of musical tribute acts including Paula Delany, based in SouthportMerseyside, who styled herself “Amy Housewine”.[230]

Discography

Awards and nominations

Among the awards and recognitions for Frank, Winehouse earned an Ivor Novello Award for Best Contemporary Song (“Stronger Than Me“),[231] a BRIT Award nomination for Best Female Solo Artist,[232] and an inclusion in Robert Dimery’s 2006 book, 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.[233] Back to Black produced numerous nominations, including two from the BRIT Awards (Best Female Solo Artist and Best British Album), six from the Grammy Awards (including five wins),[3] four from the Ivor Novello Awards, four from the MTV Europe Music Awards, three from the MTV Video Music Awards, three from the World Music Awards, and one each from the Mercury Prize (Album of the Year) and MOBO Awards (Best UK Female). During her career, Winehouse received 23 awards from 58 nominations.

QUADROPHENIA, NORTHERN SOUL AND TAMLA MOTOWN TOGETHER AT LITTLEDEAN JAIL, FOREST OF DEAN GLOUCESTERSHIRE, UK

NEW ADDITIONS TO THE UK’S ONLY QUADROPHENIA COLLECTION NOW INCLUDE NORTHERN SOUL AND  TAMLA MOTOWN MEMORABILIA….. TO INCLUDE SIGNED  PHOTOGRAPHS , PARAPHERNALIA  ETC . 

THIS TO FURTHER COMPLIMENT THE VARIOUS MODS , SCOOTER BOYS AND GIRLS , RUDE BOYS AND GIRLS , SKINHEADS , REGGAE SKINHEADS , SKA AND TWO TONE MEMORABILIA ON DISPLAY HERE TOO

NOT FORGETTING OF COURSE OUR 1960’S REVISITED COLLECTIONS TOO

HERE’S A BRIEF INTERACTIVE REMINDER AND INSIGHT INTO THE TRAGIC DEATH OF THE LEGENDARY PRINCE OF SOUL ……. MARVIN GAYE  WHO WAS SHOT TO DEATH BY HIS OWN FATHER BACK IN 1984

Death of Marvin Gaye

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On April 1, 1984, Marvin Gaye was fatally shot by his father, Marvin Gay, Sr. in the West Adams district of Los Angeles at their house on Gramercy Place. Gaye was shot twice after an altercation he had with his father after intervening in an argument between the elder Gaye and his mother Alberta. Gaye’s wounds proved to be fatal and he was pronounced dead on arrival upon his body’s entrance to the California Hospital Medical Center. Gaye’s death produced several musical tributes over the years including recollections of the incidents leading to his death. Gaye was given a burial plot at Forest Lawn Cemetery and was later cremated with his ashes spread around the Pacific Ocean.

[edit]Musical comeback and personal problems

Marvin Gaye performing in concert during the 1970s.

Marvin Gaye was at, in his own words, a low personal ebb when he reached the shores of Ostend in February 1981. After rising to the top of the pop charts in the 1960s and 1970s as an artist for the Motown Records label, Gaye had struggled with several albums and had sometimes cancelled, postponed or abruptly departed from concerts despite owing a heavy debt to the IRS. At the time Gaye began his exile from the United States in 1980, the singer owed the IRS up to $8 million in debt. Several concerts were created to alleviate the debt, which shortened to $4 million by the time Gaye announced a musical revival. After Motown released his final album with the label, In Our Lifetime, Gaye had requested to leave the label, finally settling for a multi-million dollar offer from CBS Records. The deal helped to temporarily heal Gaye’s struggling finances. Having found sobriety while in Ostend[1], the singer felt refreshed enough to record a new album. In September of 1982, “Sexual Healing” was released and quickly brought Gaye back on top hitting the top ten in several countries and winning Gaye two Grammy Awards. Its parent album, Midnight Love, also became an international success.

Gaye then announced a U.S. tour to promote the album that started in April 1983. However, Gaye had been reluctant to return to the United States. Reports stated his return to his native country was due to his mother recovering from a stroke while in surgery for bone cancer.[2] Struggling to deal with pressure from promoters and his hatred for live performances, Gaye returned to drugs. In August 1983, the tour wrapped up in Los Angeles and Gaye retreated to the home he had bought for his mother. According to family, things were peaceful enough though Gaye struggled to come to terms with his drug abuse. In October of the year, Gaye’s father Marvin Gay, Sr., an ex-minister who reportedly had physically abused Gaye and his three siblings growing up in Washington, D.C., moved back in the house. Gaye had learned prior to his father’s arrival that he was in the beginnings of selling Marvin’s childhood home, something that angered both Gaye and his mother, since he didn’t contact either of them about it. While at Gramercy, Gaye rarely left his room without wearing a maroon robe and carrying a pistol and a BB gun in his pockets. Gaye struggled with paranoia and during his last tour he had hired a group of bodyguards to watch out for potential killers. Gaye was reportedly spooked by the death of musical contemporary John Lennon and a few years before, a report stated that someone had poisoned Gaye’s drink while attending a party. In December 1983, Gaye gave his father a .38 pistol as a Christmas present to protect him.

[edit]Death

Marvin Gay, Sr. at his sentencing hearing following the shooting of his son, September 1984.

On March 31, 1984, Marvin’s parents had a domestic argument over misplaced business documents while Marvin, ill from drug use, lay in bed. Upon hearing this, he woke up and told his dad to leave his mother alone, though neither man physically attacked the other. The next day, April 1, the arguments started again.

Marvin’s brother Frankie and his wife, Irene, were next door when Irene heard the shots. When Irene rushed outside, she saw Marvin’s mother screaming for help saying “He shot my son!” Frankie ran upstairs to see his dying brother struggling to breathe, while Irene called 9-1-1. Paramedics arrived to find Gaye Sr. sitting on the front porch. They demanded to see the gun before they would enter the house. Irene found it under Marvin Sr.’s pillow and threw it on the lawn. When police arrived, Gay, Sr. was quickly escorted to the police station for questioning.

People gathering outside Marvin Gaye‘s house following news the singer was fatally shot, April 1, 1984.

Gaye was pronounced dead on arrival upon his entry to the California Hospital Medical Center at 1:01 pm PST, dying a day before his 45th birthday (April 2). Fans and neighbors of Marvin’s crowded around the scene of the crime shortly after hearing the news.

Four days later, on April 5, Gaye was given a star-studded funeral, attended by over 10,000 mourners, including his Motown colleagues Smokey RobinsonStevie Wonder and Motown CEO Berry Gordy, who was at one point, Gaye’s brother-in-law. The singer’s two ex-wivesAnna Gordy Gaye and Janis Gaye and his three children, Marvin P. Gaye III, 18; Nona Gaye, 9; and Frankie “Bubby” Gaye, 8; also attended the funeral. Gaye had an open casket funeral led by one of his ministers from his Pentecostal church. Shortly afterwards, the singer’s remains were cremated and Marvin’s children and his ex-wife Anna spread his ashes at the Pacific Ocean.

Around the same time, police interviewed Marvin Sr. on the events leading up to his son’s murder. When asked if he loved his son, Marvin Sr. reportedly took his time before finally answering, “Let’s just say I didn’t dislike him”.

Shortly after their son’s death, Alberta Gaye filed for divorce from Marvin Sr. after 49 years of marriage. Marvin Sr., then 69 years old at the time of his son’s death, continued to live in the Gramercy house until eventually he was sent to a rest home in Culver City, California, where he eventually died of pneumonia on October 10, 1998 at the age of 84.

Marvin, who was in debt at the time of his death, reportedly left no will. In his autobiography, Marvin’s friend Bobby Womack said he gave some money for Marvin’s second ex-wife, Janis to help try to cover up Marvin’s financial ruins leading to the death.

[edit]Court case

Gaye, Sr. was arrested under suspicion of murder shortly after the shooting, found standing on the front lawn of their home. He was held at the Los Angeles County Jail on $100,000 bail. An interview with The Los Angeles Herald Examiner quoted Gaye, Sr.: “I didn’t mean to do it.” [3]

A benign tumor then discovered at the base of Gaye, Sr.’s brain was removed on May 17, 1984 at County-USC Medical Centre. Despite this development, Superior Court Judge Michael Pirosh ruled that Gaye, Sr. was competent to stand trial on June 12, 1984 after reviewing a two-page report, including two psychiatric evaluations conducted by Dr. Ronald Markman.[4] He appeared in court again on June 20, 1984, where he was ordered to return on July 16 for a preliminary hearing. His wife, Alberta, posted the reduced bond of $30,000 via a bondsman to secure Gaye, Sr.’s release.[5][6]

Though initially charged with first degree murder, Marvin Gay Sr. pleaded no-contest to a voluntary manslaughter charge on September 20, 1984 via a plea bargain.[7] On November 2, 1984, Judge Gordon Ringer sentenced Marvin Gaye, Sr. to six-year suspended sentence and five years probation. During the sentencing, a deeply emotional and frail Marvin Sr. told the court that he regretted killing his son. As quoted during the sentencing, Marvin Sr. said, “If I could bring him back, I would. I was afraid of him. I thought I was going to get hurt. I didn’t know what was going to happen. I’m really sorry for everything that happened.”[8]

[edit]Tributes and reevaluation of Marvin’s music

A day after Marvin’s death, British rock group Duran Duran dedicated the song “Save A Prayer” to Gaye while on their Seven and the Ragged Tiger U.S. tour; later on that year, R&B singer Teena Marierecorded the song, “My Dear Mr. Gaye” with Gaye’s 1970s collaborator, Leon Ware. A year afterwards, two tribute songs, Diana Ross‘ “Missing You” and The Commodores‘ “Nightshift“, were released to national acclaim, both reaching number-one on the Billboard Hot Black Singles chart while also reaching the top ten on the Billboard Hot 100.

That same year, David Ritz released the biography, Divided Soul: The Life of Marvin Gaye, which quickly became a national best-seller upon its release. In 1984 Columbia and Motown re-released Marvin’s popular records, What’s Going OnLet’s Get It On, and Midnight Love on the charts. The following year, the labels, with help from Marvin’s friend Harvey Fuqua and his brother-in-law, Gordon Banks, released two works featuring unreleased Marvin material, Dream of a Lifetime and Romantically Yours.

In 1987, Gaye was posthumously inducted to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame by Ashford & Simpson, Gaye’s frequent collaborators in the 1960s during his duets with Tammi Terrell. Two years later, another tribute song, “Silky Soul”, was released by Frankie Beverly & Maze, a group Marvin had mentored and had allowed to open for him during a 1977 tour. In 1994, Motown re-released more of Gaye’s works, including 1976’s I Want You, 1978’s Here, My Dear, and 1981’s In Our Lifetime. All three albums were critically reevaluated by music critics who hailed the former two albums as landmark masterpieces in Gaye’s career.

Marvin’s What’s Going On (1971), Let’s Get It On (1973), I Want You (1976), Here, My Dear (1978) and Midnight Love (1982) albums have been on several best-of lists over the years while rock criticDave Marsh declared Marvin’s international number-one 1968 hit, “I Heard It Through the Grapevine” as the greatest song in rock history. In 1996, Gaye was given another posthumous honor with the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. The singer was honored in song by Seal and Annie Lennox. In 1990, Gaye was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, six years after his death. In his 2008 album, Something ElseRobin Thicke mentioned Marvin’s death in the song, “Dreamworld” with the lyric “I would say, Marvin Gaye, your father didn’t want you to die.”

Since his death and the release of Divided Soul, three more books, Steve Turner’s Trouble Man: The Life and Death of Marvin Gaye, brother Frankie’s My Brother, Marvin and Michael Eric Dyson‘sMercy Mercy Me: The Art, Life and Demons of Marvin Gaye have been released. Two planned films on the singer’s life are also in the works.

Rapper B. Dolan‘s 2010 album ‘Fallen House, Sunken City’ features the track “Marvin,” a tribute which details the events leading up to Gaye’s death.